Автор Ассаджи, 23:12 08 января 2007
ЦитироватьDifferent values are attached to vitakka when it is used in different connections.As an ordinary particular (pakinnakā) mental state it is simply called vitakka. When it is developed and cultivated it becomes the foremost factor of the First Jhāna. Then it is termed appanā because the mind is steadfastly fixed on the object.
ЦитироватьThere are five factors which when developed are said to counteract the five degrees of vedana (sometimes known as the five faculties of vedana) .The first is initial interest (vitakka) which directs attention to the object. It tends to fasten the mind to the object. The second is sustained application of mind (vicara) which is a kind of discipline which maintains the initial latching on of the mind to the object. Next is piti which is the experience of energisation. Fourthly there is sukha, the feeling of satisfaction and ease which seems to occur when the energisation of piti settles down, allowing a sense of well-being to pervade the entire body. Finally ekaggata, or one-pointedness of mind, arises when all factors of consciousness are unified by being directed to just one contact, thus immersing the mind in the object.These five factors are referred to as jhananga: jhana constituents or intensifying factors leading to absorption. But sometimes unpleasant feeling and neutral feeling are also listed as factors that condition absorption onto any object. So in a wider sense the intensifying activity of the jhananga forms a condition which may occur not only in all meditative states but also in relation to nearly all forms of consciousness whenever there is an interest in the object.The presence of the five jhananga exercises an intensifying influence on the co-existing factors of that conscious experience. Whatever kind of feeling is initially present is also intensified or aroused if the jhananga are active. For instance, a high degree of vitakka and vicara may intensify an initial unpleasant feeling to pain; alternatively, intensification due to piti arouses pleasant feeling. Jhananga have the capacity to allow the conscious experience to go to 'absorption'. For mental development, when the object is wholesome and the five jhananga factors of vitakka, vicara, piti, sukha and ekaggata are all equally activated, then the consciousness is ready to become absorbed onto the object or be infused with it.If absorption occurs and is maintained, the mental states experienced progress in a certain way. The five activated jhana factors gradually fall away, having completed their function as the experience reaches its fullest intensity. With the systematic falling away of the five factors, the five types of feeling are also said to be counteracted.At the first stage, when the factors of consciousness, or the jhananga, are fully intensified and come into balance, feeling of discomfort (bodily displeasure) falls away. Next, when the first two factors of vitakka and vicara fall away, there is an inward calming and joy is strong, so that unpleasant feeling falls away completely. When energisation calms down, pleasure (bodily ease) fades, leaving sukha and ekaggata. At the fourth stage pleasant feeling (sukha) goes, as there is no energy from pleasure or pain to feed it. Only a balanced state is left in which there is neutral feeling associated with one-pointedness with regard to a wholesome object. This is equipoise of mind, and the heart is serene, supple, firm and imperturbable. The mental basis has an increased vitality and strength, allowing clear penetration or awareness to arise.This neutral feeling connected with equipoise ceases after the successive experience of non-materiality in the form of concepts of 'infinite space', 'infinite consciousness', 'no-thingness' and 'neither perception nor non-perception', at which point there is said to be the cessation of perception and feeling. Thus the domination of two of the five qualities of 'being', those of perception (sanna) and feeling (vedana), is broken.
ЦитироватьПроизвольный характер внимания характерен только для человека. Объяснить механизм произвольного внимания можно через взаимодействие первой и второй сигнальных систем. Возникновение доминирующего очага возбуждения осуществляется путем избирательной иррадиации возбуждения из речевой (второй) сигнальной системы в первую. В свою очередь, первоначальные раздражители, отражаясь в речи, способствуют уточнению цели и усилению очага оптимальной возбудимости.
Цитата: Ассаджи от 11:12 09 января 2007Витакка и вичара являются процессами речевого конструирования.В Висуддхимагге практикующему рекомендуется повторять название опоры сосредоточения, например "земля", "вода","воздух", "свет". и т.п.К средствам управления вниманием можно отнести и называние (апилапана), используемое в практике четырех основ памятования (сатипаттхана).
Цитата: Александр от 23:01 05 января 2011есть ли подобные указания в более ранних текстах?
Цитата: Ассаджи от 23:41 08 августа 2008Немного первоисточников.Дантабхуми сутта, МН 125 - более подробно о прекращении мышления во второй джхане.Then the Tathagata trains him further: 'Come, monk, remain focused on the body in & of itself, but do not think any thoughts connected with the body. Remain focused on feelings in & of themselves, but do not think any thoughts connected with feelings. Remain focused on the mind in & of itself, but do not think any thoughts connected with mind. Remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves, but do not think any thoughts connected with mental qualities.' With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters the second jhana....Во второй джхане прекращаются и родственные процессы - "замыслы" (санкаппа):And what are skillful resolves? Being resolved on renunciation, on non-ill will, on harmlessness. These are called skillful resolves. What is the cause of skillful resolves? Their cause, too, has been stated, and they are said to be perception-caused. Which perception? — for perception has many modes & permutations. Any renunciation-perception, non-ill will-perception or harmlessness-perception: That is the cause of skillful resolves. Now where do skillful resolves cease without trace? Their cessation, too, has been stated: There is the case where a monk, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance. This is where skillful resolves cease without trace.Самана-мундика сутта, МН 78http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.078.than.htmlРазличение умелых и неумелых замыслов сродно различению умелых и неумелых мыслей в Дведхавитакка сутте:"Whatever a monk keeps pursuing with his thinking & pondering, that becomes the inclination of his awareness. If a monk keeps pursuing thinking imbued with renunciation, abandoning thinking imbued with sensuality, his mind is bent by that thinking imbued with renunciation. If a monk keeps pursuing thinking imbued with non-ill will, abandoning thinking imbued with ill will, his mind is bent by that thinking imbued with non-ill will. If a monk keeps pursuing thinking imbued with harmlessness, abandoning thinking imbued with harmfulness, his mind is bent by that thinking imbued with harmlessness."Just as in the last month of the hot season, when all the crops have been gathered into the village, a cowherd would look after his cows: While resting under the shade of a tree or out in the open, he simply keeps himself mindful of 'those cows.' In the same way, I simply kept myself mindful of 'those mental qualities.'"Unflagging persistence was aroused in me, and unmuddled mindfulness established. My body was calm & unaroused, my mind concentrated & single. Quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities, I entered & remained in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.019.than.html