Перевод "sati"
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sergey_os

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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #60 : 21:18 06 Ноября 2014 »

Кажется в этой теме не упоминали вот эту сутту:
Сиккха сутта (Обучение):
Из английского перевода:
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"Monks, this holy life is lived with training as a reward, with discernment as its surpassing state, with release as its heartwood, and with mindfulness as its governing principle.
...
...
"And how is mindfulness the governing principle? The mindfulness that 'I will make complete any training with regard to good conduct that is not yet complete, or I will protect with discernment any training with regard to good conduct that is complete' is well established right within. The mindfulness that 'I will make complete any training with regard to the basics of the holy life that is not yet complete, or I will protect with discernment any training with regard to the basics of the holy life that is complete' is well established right within. The mindfulness that 'I will scrutinize with discernment any Dhamma that is not yet scrutinized, or I will protect with discernment any Dhamma that has been scrutinized' is well established right within. The mindfulness that 'I will touch through release any Dhamma that is not yet touched, or I will protect with discernment any Dhamma that has been touched' is well established right within.
"This is how mindfulness is the governing principle.

текст параграфа про sati на пали:
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Kathañca bhikkhave satādhipateyyaṃ hoti? Iti aparipūraṃ vā ābhisamācārikaṃ sikkhaṃ paripūressāmi, paripūraṃ vā ābhisamācārikaṃ sikkhaṃ tattha tattha paññāya anuggahessāmīti. Ajjhattaṃ yeva sati sūpaṭṭhitā hoti. Iti aparipūraṃ vā ādibrahmacariyikaṃ sikkhaṃ paripūressāmi, paripūraṃ vā ādibrahmacariyikaṃ sikkhaṃ tattha tattha paññāya anuggahessāmīti ajjhattaṃ yeva sati sūpaṭṭhitā hoti. Iti asamavekkhitaṃ vā dhammaṃ paññāya samavekkhissāmi, samavekkhitaṃ vā dhammaṃ tattha tattha paññāya anuggahessāmīti. Ajjhattaṃ yeva sati sūpaṭṭhitā hoti. Iti aphassitaṃ vā dhammaṃ vimuttiyā phassissāmi. 3. Phassitaṃ4. Vā dhammaṃ tattha tattha paññāya anuggahessāmīti. Ajjhattaṃ yeva sati sūpaṭṭhitā hoti. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave satādhipateyyaṃ hoti.


Содержание отрывка можно наверное на русский приблизительно передать вот так:
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"И как, монахи, памятование - это главенствующий принцип? "Я выполню все практики истинного поведения, которые еще не освоены или буду с мудростью защищать те практики истинного поведения, которые освоены" - такое памятование внутренне хорошо установлено . "Я выполню практики основ святой жизни, которые еще не освоены или буду защищать с мудростью те практики святой жизни, которые уже освоены" - такое памятование внутренне хорошо установлено. "Я буду с мудростью изучать и рассматривать еще не изученные дхаммы (или м.б. учения) или изученные дхаммы с мудростью защищать" - такое памятование внутренне хорошо установлено. "Я прикоснусь, благодаря освобождению, к тем дхаммам, к которым еще не прикоснулся или буду с мудростью защищать те дхаммы, которых прикоснулся" - такое памятование внутренне хорошо установлено. Так, монахи, памятование есть главенствующий принцип.
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LXNDR

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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #61 : 11:04 15 Марта 2015 »

по-моему значение "sati" хорошо описывается понятием "иметь в виду", т.е. помнить не активно, произвольно вызывая в памяти, а подспудно, фоном, и в результате все свои поступки, мысли и чувства сообразовывать с предметом памятования, делая на него поправку

на английском  - "keeping/baring in mind", что описывает действие человека, который "mindful"

к сожалению в русском нет существительного, обознающего "иметь в виду"
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #62 : 11:23 15 Марта 2015 »

"Памятование", на мой взгляд, подходит. Оно означает удерживание в уме в настоящем времени:

ПА́МЯТОВАНИЕ -я; ср. Устар. Сохранение, удержание в памяти чего-л.

http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/es/124483/%D0%BF%D0%B0%D0%BC%D1%8F%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5

памятовать
    держать в памяти, не забывать, хранить в памяти, держать в уме, держать в мыслях, держать в голове, держать на мыслях, помнить

http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/dic_synonims/256420/%D0%BF%D0%B0%D0%BC%D1%8F%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C

"Памятуя об этом, будем уклоняться от соблазнов явного и тайного зла, воюющего на нас, будем уклоняться от гнева, осуждения, распрей и разделений, да пребудем, по слову апостола, в одном духе и в одних мыслях (1 Кор.1.10)."

http://hram.zp.ua/?p=1847

"Но Чип и Дейл, свято памятуя о долге Спасателей, не жалели лапок и спинок, чтобы отодвинуть тяжелые шкафы, дать по спинкам паучкам, засидевшихся там; подпрыгнуть высоко-высоко, забраться по лесенке и повесить свежевыстиранные занавески на место, в складках их ткани приятно летают пузырьки, а бурундучки все не отдыхают, все стол натирают..."

http://www.poetryclub.com.ua/getpoem.php?id=566364

"Но мама, свято памятуя слова своего отца, бросившего в горькие минуты: «Художник — это от худа жить», направляла жизнь Зоси в спокойное русло"

http://gazeta.zn.ua/CULTURE/i_sami,_kak_zhivye_kamni,_ustroyte_iz_sebya_dom_duhovnyy.html
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #63 : 22:53 09 Августа 2015 »

Кажется в этой теме не упоминали вот эту сутту:
Сиккха сутта (Обучение):
"Я буду с мудростью изучать и рассматривать еще не изученные дхаммы (или м.б. учения) или изученные дхаммы с мудростью защищать" - такое памятование внутренне хорошо установлено.

Ричард пишет:

the buddhavacana (i.e., “the words/ teachings of a buddha”) is structured ... to wit: as a memorable impressment into memory, via constant repetition, for those oh-so-essential rememoration-presentiation purposes – in these specialised contexts the Pāli “sati”/ Vedic “smṛ́ti” (often misleadingly translated with a ‘passive-witnessing’ meaning ascribed to ‘mindfulness’ such as “choiceless awareness”, “bare attention”, “lucid awareness”, and etcetera) has an exclusive relationship with the Pāli “suti”/ Vedic “śruti” (i.e., the sacred gnosis/ divine wisdom of immediate/ intuitive and/or unworldly/ otherworldly revelation as epitomised by the ancient Ṛishis of Vedic lore and legend) and nothing else – the fruitfulness of which is prominently demonstrated in the Pāli Canon by those numerous bhikkhū/ bhikkhunī of yore having thereby become arahants.

Viz.:

    • [Mr. Jeffery Block:]: “On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Uruvelā on the bank of the river Nerañjarā at the foot of the Goatherd’s Banyan Tree just after he had become fully enlightened. Then, while the Blessed One was alone in seclusion, a reflection arose in his mind thus: ‘The five faculties, when developed and cultivated, have the Deathless as their ground, the Deathless as their destination, the Deathless as their final goal. What five? The faculty of faith, the faculty of energy, the faculty of mindfulness, the faculty of concentration, the faculty of wisdom. These five faculties, when developed and cultivated, have the Deathless as their ground, the Deathless as their destination, the Deathless as their final goal’”. ~ (p.1699; The Great Book (Mahāvagga), V; “The Connected Discourses of the Buddha”; trans. by Bhikkhu Bhodhi; 2000, Wisdom Publications, Somerville MA).

    • [Mr. Frank Woodward]: “Thus have I heard: On a certain occasion the Exalted One was staying at Uruvela, on the bank of the river Neranjara, under the Goatherds’ Banyan, just after his attainment of perfect enlightenment. Now in the Exalted One, when he had retired to his solitary communing, there arose this mental reflection: There are five controlling faculties which, cultivated and made much, of, plunge into the Deathless, have their end and goal in the Deathless. What five? The controlling faculty of faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and insight. These five, if cultivated and made much of, plunge into the Deathless, have their end and goal in the Deathless”. ~ (pp.207-8; The Great Chapter; “The Book of Kindred Sayings”, Vol V; trans. by F. L. Woodward; 1929, Pali Text Society).

This is an apposite juncture, then, to further explain that oh-so-essential rememoration-presentiation process. To rememorate, in the sense which the Pāli “sati/ satimā” conveys itself linguistically, in the Pāli sentences themselves and contextually in the buddhavacana as a whole, is to not only be memorative but is to be so with an instinctual, intuitive apprehension of the exclusive relationship the Pāli ‘sati’ (=Vedic ‘smṛti’) has with the Pāli ‘suti’ (=Vedic ‘śruti’) in its special-usage revelatory sense.

Viz.:

    • suti (f.) cf. śruti *revelation* as opp. to smṛti *tradition*. [emphases added]. ~ (PTS-PED).

Thus the Pāli suti (=Vedic śruti) refers to revelation as opposed to the Pāli sati (=Vedic smṛti) which refers to tradition. That comparison can be seen here (bear in mind that the Vedic śruti = the Pāli suti whilst reading):

    • śruti (f.): that which has been heard or communicated from the beginning; sacred eternal sounds or words as eternally heard by certain holy sages called Ṛishis, and so differing from smṛ́ti [= Pāli sati] or what is only remembered and handed down in writing by human authors [i.e., tradition]. [square-bracketed insertions added]. ~ (MMW-SED).

And this exclusive relationship also rates a special mention in that Monier Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary entry for smṛti (= Pāli sati) where, it may be profitably noted, the word ‘mindful’/ ‘mindfulness’ is quite conspicuous by its absence (the first edition of that dictionary was published in 1872; Mr. Thomas Rhys Davids first translated ‘sati’ as “mindfulness” in 1881).

Viz.:

    • smṛ́ti (f.): remembrance, reminiscence, thinking of or upon (loc. or comp.), calling to mind, memory; the whole body of sacred tradition or what is remembered by human teachers, in contradistinction to śruti [= Pāli suti], or what is directly heard or revealed to the Ṛishis; in its widest acceptation this use of the term Smṛti includes the 6 Vedāṅgas, the Sūtras both śrauta, and gṛhya, the law-books of Manu &c.; the whole body of codes of law as handed down memoriter or by tradition (esp. the codes of Manu Yājñavalkya and the 16 succeeding inspired lawgivers, viz. [...]; all these lawgivers being held to be inspired and to have based their precepts on the Veda. [square-bracketed insertion added]. ~ (MWW-SED).

Thus the Pāli sati (=Vedic smṛti) refers, then, to not only “remembrance, reminiscence, thinking of or upon; calling to mind, memory” but to “the whole body of sacred tradition” (e.g., in the buddhistic context, to the entire Suttanta & Vinaya) as well. That is, the term “sati/ satimā” refers to “what is remembered by human teachers, in contradistinction to śruti [= Pāli suti]” which, in the buddhistic context, is in contradistinction to what is directly known or apprehended by the sammāsambuddha (i.e., a ‘Ṛishi’ par excellence, and then some, so to speak).

Put simply, the English word ‘mindful’/ ‘mindfulness’ cannot even begin to convey what the Pāli “sati/ satimā” refers to.

Furthermore, to be rememorative in the sense which the Pāli sati (= Vedic smṛti) conveys its meaning – a meaning conveyed both contextually and linguistically in the Pāli sentences themselves – is to be comprehensive, in a similarly visceral-intuitive manner, of the relationship the revelatory Pāli ‘suti’ (=Vedic śruti) has with the equally-special usage of the Pāli ‘suta’ (= Vedic ‘śruta’) as well.

Viz.:

    • śruta (mfn.): heard, listened to, heard about or of, taught, mentioned, orally transmitted or communicated from age to age; śrutam (n.): that which has been heard (esp. from the beginning), knowledge as heard by holy men and transmitted from generation to generation, oral tradition or revelation, sacred knowledge; śrutavat: possessing (sacred) knowledge, learned, pious; śrutavid: knowing sacred revelation; śrutamaya (& śrutamayī): consisting of knowledge; śrutasád: abiding in what is heard (i.e. in transmitted knowledge or tradition). ~ (MMW-SED).
    • suta (pp. of suṇāti): heard; in special sense ‘received through inspiration or revelation’; freq. in phrase ‘iti me sutaṃ’: thus have I heard, I have received this on (religious) authority; (nt.) sacred lore, inspired tradition, revelation; learning, religious knowledge; sutadhana: the treasure of revelation; sutadhara: remembering what has been heard (or taught in the Scriptures); sutamaya (& sutamayī): consisting in learning (or resting on sacred tradition), one of the 3 kinds of knowledge (paññā), viz. cintāmayā, sutamayā, bhāvanāmayā paññā; sutādhāra: holding (i.e. keeping in mind, preserving) the sacred learning. ~ (PTS-PED).

Hence, instead of mindlessly continuing to translate the Pāli ‘sati’ with a late-19th century-voguish, western-acculturated and everyday-usage word it is more explanatorily helpful to resurrect an antiquated term (that Shakespearean-Era “rememoration” was already ‘not in use’ in 1828, ‘obsolete’ by 1913 and ‘archaic’ come 2008 according to the various “Webster’s Dictionaries” available), unto which restored word that special-usage meaning of an instinctually-intuitive type of memoration – essentially, then, in this context a rememoration of the gnostic knowledge/ metempirical wisdom itself, revivified feelingly with luminous vibrancy, in the memorative faculty – can thus be readily ascribed and hypostatised.

http://actualfreedom.com.au/richard/listdcorrespondence/listd48a.htm#30Jul15
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #64 : 09:53 19 Августа 2015 »

Edward S. Casey, Remembering Resumed: Pursuing Buddhism and Phenomenology in Practice

https://philosophydocuments.files.wordpress.com/2014/11/13-remembering-resumed.pdf
http://edwardscasey.com/?page_id=13

Collett Cox, "Mindfulness and Memory: The Scope of Smrti from Early Buddhism to the Sarvastivadin Abhidharma"

https://books.google.com/books?id=SbIiaEx_8d8C&pg=PA67

Nyanaponika Thera, “The Omission of Memory in the Theravadin List of Dhammas: On the Nature of Saññā"

https://books.google.com/books?id=SbIiaEx_8d8C&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #65 : 18:58 25 Марта 2016 »

"The term mindfulness was first coined by the great Buddhist scholar T. W. Rhys Davids at the dawn of the 20th Century. Interestingly though, Rhys Davids toyed with various terms before settling on mindfulness. In his 1881 publication of Buddhist suttas, sati was rendered as ‘mental activity,’ and even simply as ‘thought.’ It was then only with his 1910 work that he settled on the term mindfulness."

Tim Lomas Ph.D.

Where Does The Word "Mindfulness" Come From?
Is this really the best word to use?

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mindfulness-wellbeing/201603/where-does-the-word-mindfulness-come
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #66 : 21:10 25 Марта 2016 »

Из Вибханги:

“Satimā” ti. Tattha, katamā sati?
“Mindful”. Herein, what is mindfulness?

Yā sati anussati paṭissati sati saraṇatā,
That which is mindfulness, recollection, recall, mindfulness, remembrance,

dhāraṇatā apilāpanatā asammussanatā,
bearing (in mind), not losing, not confusing,

sati Satindriyaṁ Satibalaṁ Sammāsati – ayaṁ vuccati “sati”.
mindfulness, the Faculty of Mindfulness, the Strength of Mindfulness, Right Mindfulness – this is called “mindfulness”.

Imāya satiyā upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato,
With this mindfulness he is endowed, truly endowed, having attained, truly attained,

upapanno samupapanno samannāgato.
being possessed, truly possessed, furnished (with it).

Tena vuccati “satimā” ti.
Because of this “mindful” is said.

http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Texts-and-Translations/Satipatthanavibhanga/02-Kayanupassananiddeso.htm

Из книги досточтимого Паютто:

In the Noble Eightfold Path, the practice leading to the complete cessation of Unsatisfactoriness, Sammasati is counted as the second factor of the Samadhi Section, the 'Higher Mental Training'. The usual definition of sammasati given in the Discourses is as follows:

"Bhikkhus. What is sammasati? This is call sammasati, namely, that a bhikkhu in this Dhamma Vinaya:
"1. Contemplates the body in the body with effort, sampajañña and sati, eradicating covetousness and distress with regard to the world;
"2. Contemplates feeling in feelings with effort, sampajañña and sati, eradicating covetousness and distress with regard to the world;
"3.  the mind in the mind with effort, sampajañña and sati, eradicating covetousness and distress with regard to the world;
"4. Contemplates dhammas in dhammas with effort, sampajañña and sati, eradicating covetousness and distress with regard to the world." [D.II.313]

Another definition, which appears in the Abhidhamma texts, is as follows:

"What is sammasati? Sati means to bear in mind or bring to mind. Sati is the state of recollecting, the state of remembering, the state of non-fading, the state of non-forgetting. Sati means the sati that is a Spiritual Faculty, the sati that is a Spiritual Power, Sammasati, the Sati that is an Enlightenment Factor, that which is a Path Factor and that which is related to the Path. This is what is called sammasati." [Vbh.105, 286]

Sammasati, as defined in the Discourses, is a synonym for the principles of Dhamma known as the Four Satipatthana. The four elements of this group have the abbreviated names of:
 
  • Kayanupassana (contemplation or mindfulness of the body);
  • Vedananupassana (contemplation or mindfulness of feelings);
  • Cittanupassana (contemplation or mindfulness of mind);
  • Dhammanupassana (contemplation or mindfulness of dhammas).

http://www.budsas.org/ebud/ebdha309.htm
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #67 : 12:25 26 Апреля 2016 »

В контексте Сатипаттханы, сати - это удерживание опоры (ārammaṇa):

Satīti ārammaṇapariggahitasati.

Salayatanavagga-Atthakatha 2.390

где опора может быть четырех видов, соответствующих телу и другим сферам установления памятования:

Tattha ārammaṇe pakkhanditvā upaṭṭhānaṭṭhena paṭṭhānaṃ, satiyeva paṭṭhānaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ. Ārammaṇassa pana kāyādivasena catubbidhattā vuttaṃ ‘‘cattāro satipaṭṭhānā’’ti. Tathā hi kāyavedanācittadhammesu subhasukhaniccaattasaññānaṃ pahānato asubhadukkhāniccānattatāgahaṇato ca nesaṃ kāyānupassanādibhāvo vibhatto.

Udana-Atthakatha 304


В контексте Сатипаттханы, сати связано с функциями памяти, и служит 'памятованием' (saraṇa):

Satiyeva satipaṭṭhānaṃ. Atha vā saraṇaṭṭhena sati, upaṭṭhānaṭṭhena paṭṭhānaṃ. Iti sati ca sā paṭṭhānaṃ cātipi satipaṭṭhānaṃ. Idamidhādhippetaṃ.

Yadi evaṃ kasmā ‘‘satipaṭṭhānā’’ti bahuvacanaṃ? Satibahuttā. Ārammaṇabhedena hi bahukā etā satiyo.

Mahavagga-Atthakatha 3.753


Так что нет особой разницы между значением сати в контексте Сатипаттханы и контекстами памятования (например, о Татхагате) - просто сати может удерживать различные опоры (ārammaṇa). Единое значение сати в различных контекстах описывается в Маханиддесе:

Satoti catūhi kāraṇehi sato – kāye kāyānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ bhāvento sato, vedanāsu…pe… citte… dhammesu dhammānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ bhāvento sato.

Aparehipi catūhi kāraṇehi sato – asatiparivajjanāya sato, satikaraṇīyānaṃ dhammānaṃ katattā sato, satiparibandhānaṃ dhammānaṃ hatattā sato, satinimittānaṃ dhammānaṃ asammuṭṭhattā sato.

Aparehipi catūhi kāraṇehi sato – satiyā samannāgatattā sato, satiyā vasitattā sato, satiyā pāguññatāya sato, satiyā apaccorohaṇatāya sato.

Aparehipi catūhi kāraṇehi sato – sattattā sato, santattā sato, samitattā sato, santadhammasamannāgatattā sato. Buddhānussatiyā sato, dhammānussatiyā sato, saṅghānussatiyā sato, sīlānussatiyā sato, cāgānussatiyā sato, devatānussatiyā sato, ānāpānassatiyā sato, maraṇassatiyā sato, kāyagatāsatiyā sato, upasamānussatiyā sato. Yā sati anussati paṭissati sati saraṇatā dhāraṇatā apilāpanatā asammussanatā sati satindriyaṃ satibalaṃ sammāsati satisambojjhaṅgo ekāyanamaggo, ayaṃ vuccati sati. Imāya satiyā upeto hoti samupeto upagato samupagato upapanno samupapanno samannāgato, so vuccati sato.


В Абхидхарма-самуччае аналогично:

"What are the objects (ālambana) of the application of mindfulness (smṛtyupasthāna)? They are the body (kāya), feeling (vedanā), mind (citta) and mental qualities and objects (dharma). Or [they are] things pertaining to oneself (ātmāśraya-vastu), things experienced by oneself (ātmavastu) and qualities pertaining to the defilement and purification of oneself (ātmasaṃkleśavyavadānavastu)."

"The cultivation of mindfulness (smṛtibhāvanā) [is accomplished] by counteracting the minor defilement of confusion (forgetfulness) (saṃmosa) with regard to the teaching of the Blessed One (bhagavatah śāsane)."

http://books.google.com.ua/books?id=ck4BrBqBdYIC&pg=PA160&lpg=PA160

Tattha, katamā sati?
Herein, what is mindfulness?

Yā sati anussati ...pe...paṭissati sati saraṇatā,
That which is mindfulness, recollection, ...pe...recall, mindfulness, remembrance,

dhāraṇatā apilāpanatā asammussanatā,
bearing (in mind), not losing, not confusing,

sati Satindriyaṁ Satibalaṁ Sammāsati:
mindfulness, the Faculty of Mindfulness, the Strength of Mindfulness, Right Mindfulness:

ayaṁ vuccati ‘sati’.
this is said to be ‘mindfulness’.

Satipatthana-Vibhanga
http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Texts-and-Translations/Satipatthanavibhanga/02-Kayanupassananiddeso.htm

Это традиционное определение сати согласуется с "dhāraṇatā" (удерживанием) из Дхаммасангани 16:

Katamaa tasmi.m samaye sati hoti? Yaa tasmi.m samaye sati anussati pa.tissati sati sara.nataa dhāraṇatā apilaapanataa asammussanataa sati satindriya.m satibala.m sammaasati– aya.m tasmi.m samaye sati hoti.

И с "Вопросами Милинды (Milinda-pañha 37-38 ):

eva.m kho, mahaaraaja, upaggaṇhanalakkhaṇā sati.

"Вот так, государь, свойство памятования – удерживать."

 
Такое удерживание одной из сатипаттхан как опоры (ārammaṇa) описывается на практике в Сатипаттхана сутте, и подробнее объясняется в Сатипаттхана-вибханге:

Kathañ-ca bhikkhu ajjhattaṁ kāye kāyānupassī viharati?
And how does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself?

...

So taṁ nimittaṁ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti svāvatthitaṁ vavatthapeti,
He practices, develops, makes much of that sign, and fixes its definition,

so taṁ nimittaṁ āsevitvā bhāvetvā bahulīkaritvā svāvatthitaṁ vavatthapetvā,
and after he has practised, developed, made much of that sign, and fixed its definition,

bahiddhā kāye cittaṁ upasaṁharati.
he focuses his mind on another’s body.

http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Texts-and-Translations/Satipatthanavibhanga/02-Kayanupassananiddeso.htm

где "нимитта" (представление) это вариант опоры ("ārammaṇa"), а "svāvatthitaṁ vavatthapeti" близко по значению к "pariggahita".

Как объясняется в Комментарии, памятование (сати) применяется к одной опоре:

"apica tasmiṃ janapade catasso parisā pakatiyāva satipaṭṭhānabhāvanānuyogamanuyuttā viharanti, antamaso dāsakammakaraparijanāpi satipaṭṭhānappaṭisaṃyuttameva kathaṃ kathenti. udakatitthasuttakantanaṭṭhānādīsupi niratthakakathā nāma na pavattati. sace kāci itthī “amma tvaṃ kataraṃ satipaṭṭhānabhāvanaṃ manasikarosī”ti pucchitā “na kiñcī”ti vadati. taṃ garahanti “dhiratthu tava jīvitaṃ, jīvamānāpi tvaṃ matasadisā”ti. atha naṃ “mā dāni puna evamakāsī”ti ovaditvā aññataraṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ uggaṇhāpenti. yā pana “ahaṃ asukaṃ satipaṭṭhānaṃ manasikaromī”ti vadati. tassā “sādhu sādhū”ti sādhukāraṃ datvā “tava jīvitaṃ sujīvitaṃ, tvaṃ nāma manussattaṃ pattā, tavatthāya sammāsambuddho uppanno”tiādīhi pasaṃsanti.

Further, in that territory of the Kuru people, the four classes — bhikkhu, bhikkhuni, upasaka, upasika — generally by nature were earnest in the application of the Arousing of Mindfulness to their daily life. At the very lowest, even servants, usually, spoke with mindfulness. At wells or in spinning halls useless talk was not heard. If some woman asked of another woman, "Mother, which Arousing of Mindfulness do you practice?" and got the reply, "None at all," then that woman who replied so was reproached thus: "Your life is shameful; though you live you are as if dead," and was taught one of the kinds of Mindfulness-arousing. But on being questioned if she said that she was practicing such and such an Arousing of Mindfulness, then she was praised thus: "Well done, well done! Your life is blessed; you are really one who has attained to the human state; for you the Sammasambuddhas have come to be.""
 

"kāyānupassīti kāyamanupassanasīlo, kāyaṃ vā anupassamāno.

“kāye”ti ca vatvāpi puna “kāyānupassī”ti dutiyaṃ kāyaggahaṇaṃ asammissato vavatthānaghanavinibbhogādidassanatthaṃ katanti veditabbaṃ. tena na kāye vedanānupassī vā, cittadhammānupassī vā, atha kho kāyānupassīyevāti kāyasaṅkhāte vatthusmiṃ kāyānupassanākārasseva dassanena asammissato vavatthānaṃ dassitaṃ hoti.


Kayanupassi = "Contemplating the body." Possessed of the character of body-contemplation, or of observing the body.

Why is the word "body" used twice in the phrase: "Contemplating the body in the body?" For determining the object and isolating it, and for the sifting out thoroughly [vinibbhoga] of the apparently compact [ghana] nature of things like continuity [santati].

Because there is no contemplating of feeling, consciousness nor mental objects in the body, but just the contemplating of the body only, determination through isolation is set forth by the pointing out of the way of contemplating the body only in the property called the body."

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/soma/wayof.html#body

 
Такое памятование об одной из сатипаттхан в целом, как о сфере (гочара), описывается и в самой Сатипаттхана сутте:

Atthi kāyoti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya patissatimattāya.

Либо его памятование устанавливается как "Есть тело", ради знания и памятования.

Atthi vedanāti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya patissatimattāya.

Либо его памятование устанавливается как "Есть ощущения", ради знания и памятования.

Atthi cittanti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya patissatimattāya.

Либо его памятование устанавливается как "Есть ум", ради знания и памятования.

Atthi dhammāti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya patissatimattāya.

Либо его памятование устанавливается как "Есть качества ума", ради знания и памятования.

http://dhamma.ru/canon/mn/mn10.htm

с более развернутым описанием в Дведхавитакка сутте:

Seyyathāpi bhikkhave gimhānaṃ pacchime māse sabbasassesu gāmantasambhatesu gopālako gāvo rakkheyya. Tassa rukkhamūlagatassa vā abbhokāsagatassa vā satikaraṇīyameva hoti: etaṃ gāvoti. Evameva kho bhikkhave satikaraṇīyameva ahosi: ete dhammāti.

"Подобно тому, монахи, как в последний месяц жаркого сезона, когда все зерно собрано на окраине деревни, пастух присматривал бы за коровами. И ему, находящемуся в корнях деревьев или находящемуся под открытым небом, нужно было бы помнить лишь вот что: «Эти коровы». Точно так же, монахи, возникла необходимость помнить лишь вот что: «Эти качества ума»."
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #68 : 20:35 16 Мая 2016 »

Джон Данн использует перевод "retention":

In particular, accounts drawn from or inspired by the Abhidharma (or Abhidhamma, in Pāli), seem to understand mindfulness in quite a different way than do many psychotherapists and clinicians. Setting aside a great many details, we can highlight the main issue by turning to the term sati (in Pāli) or smṛti (in Sanskrit). This is the term that occurs in the passage that begins this article, and it is apparently Rhys-Davids who first chooses to render it as “mindfulness” (Gethin, 2011). It is also occurs in the term satipaṭṭhāna (Pāli) or smṛtyupasthāna (Sanskrit) – a term that describes the basic and early style of Buddhist meditation often cited as an important source for contemporary mindfulness practices (Bodhi, 2011; Anālayo 2003, Goldstein 2002). In its most precise meaning within the Abhidharma technical literature , the term smṛti (which we will use to refer also to the Pāli term sati ) describes a particular feature of a moment of awareness such that the awareness is stably focused on its object. Specifically, it is the feature of such an awareness that prevents the focus from deviating to any other object. In conjunction with other features that account for other aspects of attention such as acuity or clarity, sm ṛ ti thus functions as the basis for other cognitive capacities, such as the ability to produce a reliable phenomenal report of one’s experience or an accurate judgment about the object of one’s focus (Vasubandhu & Yaśomitra, 1970, II.24; Sthiramati, 1925, p.25; Asanga, 200, p. 9; Dreyfus & Thompson, 2007).

In its usage as a description of a certain facet of stable attention, the term smṛti appears to be metaphorical. Literally, it means “memory” or “remembering,” but there is no clear reference to an act of memory here, except perhaps in the very narrow sense of working memory (Dreyfus, 2011). Instead, the loss of focus on the object is referred to as “loss” ( sampramoṣa ) or “forgetting” (vismaraṇa), and the stable retention of the object in attention is thus called smṛti, literally, “remembering” (Vasubandhu and Yaśomitra, 1970, II.24; Sthiramati, 1925, p.25). How ever, when smṛti occurs within the compound smṛtyupasthāna (“the establishing of smṛti/sati,” Pāli, satipaṭṭhāna ), it is understood in the context of a meditative practice, and here its literal meaning of “memory” becomes more salient. In particular, smṛti in this broader usage is associated with one’s capacity to keep in mind the larger framework of contemplative practice. As Rupert Gethin (2011) puts it:

Цитировать
The key element in the early definitions, it seems to me, is that they take the sense of sati (= smṛti ) as ‘remembering’ seriously. The basic idea here is straightforward: if one is instructed to observe the breath and be aware whether it is a long breath or short breath, one needs to remember to do this, rather than forget after a minute, five minutes, 30 minutes, and so forth. That is, one has to remember that what it is one should be doing is remembering the breath. There is a further dimension to this remembering implied by my use of the expression ‘what one is supposed to be doing’. That is in the specific context in which the practice of mindfulness is envisaged by ancient Buddhist texts, in remembering that one should remember the breath, one is remembering that one should be doing a meditation practice; in remembering that one should be doing a meditation practice, one is remembering that one is a Buddhist monk; in remembering that one is a Buddhist monk, one is remembering that one should be trying to root out greed, hatred and delusion. Conversely, in forgetting the breath, one is forgetting that one is doing a meditation practice; in forgetting that one is doing a meditation practice, one is forgetting that one is a Buddhist monk; in forgetting that one is a Buddhist monk one is forgetting that one is trying to root out greed, hatred and delusion. (p . 270)

As Gethin indicates, when understood in the context of contemplative practices that fall under the rubric of “mindfulness,” smṛti points to a capacity to recollect one’s larger sense of purpose, one’s spiritual goals, and especially the ethical framework within which practice occurs. That ethical framework is rooted in a practitioner’s resolve to abandon unwholesome mental qualit ies such as greed, hatred and delusion while cultivating positive ones, such as generosity, loving kindness and wisdom. As Gethin (2011) notes, “ These ancient definitions and the Abhidhamma list of terms seem to be rather at odds with the modern clinical psychotherapeutic definition of mindfulness” (p. 270).

Mindfulness Meditation: Frames and Choices

https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/10718406/46521719.pdf
http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10718406

Buddhist  Styles of  Mindfulness:  A Heuristic  Approach
http://www.johnddunne.net/uploads/9/8/5/6/9856107/dunne_mindfulness_heuristic_final_2014-04-30.pdf#page=17

Toward an Understanding of Non-Dual Mindfulness
http://www.emory.edu/ECCS/education/dunne.pdf#page=9
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #69 : 20:41 16 Мая 2016 »

Джордж Дрейфус тоже:

The idea of mindfulness as a retention of information may come as a surprise given   the   almost   universal   acceptance   of   the   definition   of   mindfulness   as   present-centered nonjudgmental awareness.  And yet the idea of mindfulness as a  holding  rather  than  a  merely  passive  attending  fits  quite  well  the  classical  Buddhist  descriptions  found  in  the  Abhidharma,  which  all  concur  in  presenting   mindfulness  as  the  ability  of  the  mind  to  remain  present  to  the  object  without  floating  away.

http://www.emory.edu/ECCS/education/dreyfus.pdf
https://www.academia.edu/12638494/Is_Mindfulness_Present-Centered_and_Nonjudgmental
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #70 : 08:28 23 Мая 2016 »

Collett Cox
"Mindfulness and Memory: The Scope of Smrti from Early Buddhism to Sarvastivadin Abhidharma"

http://books.google.com/books?id=SbIiaEx_8d8C&pg=PA67&lpg=PA67

Профессор Кокс пишет:

"…Mindfulness is chosen here not, as in many cases, to avoid confusion with the psychological function of smrti as memory, but precisely for the opposite reason; that is, to indicate at the outset what this chapter will illustrate: that the contexts for the operation of smrti suggested by the term mindfulness actually encompass the psychological functions of memory as they were understood within Indian Buddhism."

и обращает внимание на рефрен Каягатасати сутты:

Tassa evaṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato ye gehasitā sarasaṅkappā te pahīyanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati, sannisīdati, ekodi hoti, samādhiyati. Evampi bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāyagataṃ satiṃ bhāveti.

And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.119.than.html

и подобный отрывок в Дантабхуми сутте:

So ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalikaraṇe kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.

"He, by getting rid of these five hindrances which are defilements of the mind and weakening to intuitive wisdom, dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly conscious [of it], mindful [of it] so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world. He fares along contemplating the feelings... the mind... the mental states in mental states, ardent, clearly conscious [of them], mindful [of them] so as to control the covetousness and dejection in the world.

Seyyathāpi aggivessana, hatthidamako mahantaṃ thambhaṃ paṭhaviyaṃ nikhaṇitvā āraññakassa nāgassa gīvāyaṃ upanibandhati. Āraññakānañceva sīlānaṃ abhinimmadanāya, āraññakānañceva sarasaṅkappānaṃ abhinimmadanāya, āraññakānañceva darathakilamathapariḷāhānaṃ abhinimmadanāya, gāmante abhiramāpanāya, manussakantesu sīlesu sampādanāya1 evameva kho aggivessana, ariyasāvakassa ime cattāro satipaṭṭhānā cetaso upanibandhanā honti. Gehasitānañceva sīlānaṃ abhinimmadanāya, gehasitānañceva sarasaṅkappānaṃ abhinimmadanāya, gehasitānañceva darathakilamathapariḷāhānaṃ abhinimmadanāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya.

"As, Aggivessana, an elephant tamer, driving a great post into the ground, ties a forest elephant to it by his neck so as to subdue his forest ways, so as to subdue his forest aspirations, and so as to subdue his distress, his fretting and fever for the forest, so as to make him pleased with villages and accustom him to human ways — even so, Aggivessana, these four applications of mindfulness are ties of the mind so as to subdue the ways of householders and to subdue the aspirations of householders and to subdue the distress, the fretting and fever of householders; they are for leading to the right path, for realizing nibbana.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sltp/MN_III_utf8.html#pts.128
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.125.horn.html
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #71 : 08:35 23 Мая 2016 »

"When specific references occur in the scientific literature to the Buddhist textual sources, these references often consist in noting that the term “mindfulness” is a translation of the Pāli term sati. In Buddhist theory, however, the term sati carries connotations of memory and remembrance, making attempts to understand mindfulness as a present-centered, non-elaborative, and non- judgmental attention appear inaccurate and confused (see Bodhi 2011; Dreyfus 2011). Indeed, the term “mindfulness” seems to have been chosen by early translators of the Pāli texts because they saw parallels not with a notion of non-judgmental present-centered attention but, rather, between the Christian ethical notion of conscience and the textual usage of sati in the context of holding in mind and being inspired by certain truths, for the sake of improvement of one’s ethical character (Gethin 2011). The broad usage of the term sati is perhaps best captured by the colloquial English notion of “minding.” The Pāli texts employ sati in reference to everything from “minding” one’s livestock (MN.I.117) to “minding” one’s meditation object in practices such as loving-kindness (Sn.26), in addition to using sati specifically in the context of mindfulness meditation or, more literally,in the establishment of sati (sati-upaṭṭhāna). In this general sense, sati clearly can involve elaborative and evaluative cognitive processes. In the role sati plays in the context of mindfulness meditation, however, the involvement of memorymay be of a more limited and specific kind."

From the Five Aggregates to Phenomenal Consciousness:Towards a Cross-Cultural Cognitive Science
by Jake H. Davis and Evan Thompson

http://www.academia.edu/2011639/From_the_Five_Aggregates_to_Phenomenal_Consciousness_Toward_a_Cross-Cultural_Cognitive_Science
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #72 : 19:23 22 Июня 2016 »

В Суттанте нет определения неверного памятования (миччха-сати), но Комментарий к Мадджхима-никае описывает его как неумелое воспоминание о прошлых событиях, как в Ануттария сутте:

“Here, someone recollects the gain of a son, a wife, or wealth; or else they recollect various kinds of gain; or else they recollect an ascetic or brahmin of wrong views, of wrong practice. There is this kind of recollection; this I do not deny. But this kind of recollection is low, common, worldly, ignoble, and unbeneficial; it does not lead to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, peace, direct knowledge, enlightenment, and nibbāna.”

См. http://dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?f=19&t=26776#p384643

В переводе Пия Тана:

7.5 (6) RECOLLECTING THE BUDDHA OR THE SAINTS. And what is the unsurpassable recollection (anussat’anuttariya)?
8.1 Here, bhikshus, one recollects the gain of a son [child], or of a wife [woman in the house], or of wealth, or of gaining this and that, or one recollects a recluse or a brahmin of wrong view and wrong practice.
8.2 Bhikshus, is this recollection? This is not it, I say, it is not so; for that recollection, bhikshus, is low, vulgar, worldly, ignoble, not associated with the spiritual goal, and brings about no revulsion, no fading away (of lust), no ending (of suffering), no stilling (of defilements), no direct knowledge (of the four noble truths), no self-awakening, no nirvana.
8.3 But, bhikshus, when one, set in faith, set in love, single-minded, full of faith, recollects the Tathagata, or the Tathagata’s disciple— that, bhikshus, is the unsurpassable recollection for the purification of beings, for overcoming sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of physical and mental pain, for gaining the right way, for realizing nirvana.
8.4 That is to say, when one, set in faith, set in love, single-minded, full of faith, recollects the Tathagata, or the Tathagata’s disciple. This, bhikshus, is called the unsurpassable recollection.

http://dharmafarer.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/14.15-Anuttariya-S-2-a6.30-piya.pdf
http://awake.kiev.ua/dhamma/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/4Anguttara-Nikaya/Anguttara4/6-chakkanipata/003-anuttariyavaggo-e.html
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #73 : 17:18 08 Октября 2016 »

Досточтимый Аггачитта объясняет значение "сати" таким образом:

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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #74 : 19:12 19 Ноября 2016 »

На основании чего слово ānāpānassati в анапанасати сутте было переведено как "памятование при дыхании"?
http://dhamma.ru/canon/mn/mn118.htm

Англоязычные переводчики обычно используют mindfullness of breathing.

Кроме того, в некоторых местах слово переведено как "Памятование при вдохе и выдохе". Раз палийское слово одно и то же, надо привести к единому переводу.
« Последнее редактирование: 20:36 19 Ноября 2016 от Кхантибало »
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #75 : 10:33 20 Ноября 2016 »

А как Вы предлагаете?

Везде "памятование о дыхании"?
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #76 : 18:25 20 Ноября 2016 »

А как Вы предлагаете?

Везде "памятование о дыхании"?
Основной вопрос состоит в том "при" или "о"? Если с этим будет ясность, то написать единообразно - не проблема...

Есть ли где-то палийские глоссы слова ānāpānassati? Нашёл вот эту книгу, содержащую полный перевод комментария, Висуддхимагги и Патисамбхидамагги в части памятования при дыхании:
http://www.urbandharma.org/pdf1/MindfulnessBreathing.pdf
И там есть такой фрагмент:
Herein,   “developed”   means   aroused,   or   increased; “mindfulness  of  breathing”  means  mindfulness  which  lays hold  of  the  breath;  or  mindfulness  of  breathing  is  mindfulness of  breathing;
В оригинале в Висуддхимагге пункт 216:
Tattha bhāvitoti uppādito vaḍḍhito vā. Ānāpānassatisamādhīti ānāpānapariggāhikāya satiyā saddhiṃ sampayutto samādhi. Ānāpānassatiyaṃ vā samādhi ānāpānassatisamādhi.
странно, что samādhi не перевели..

При самостоятельном анализе имеющихся вариантов получается следующее:
Если "памятование о дыхании" - то объектом памятования является дыхание.
Если "памятование при дыхании", то объектом памятования являются одна из 4 опор (тело, ощущения, ум и умственные качества), а дыхание лишь средство для удержания этого памятования.

Выходит, что более точный вариант - второй?
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #77 : 19:23 20 Ноября 2016 »

Основной вопрос состоит в том "при" или "о"? Если с этим будет ясность, то написать единообразно - не проблема...

Спасибо за прекрасную глоссу. "О".

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Если "памятование при дыхании", то объектом памятования являются одна из 4 опор (тело, ощущения, ум и умственные качества), а дыхание лишь средство для удержания этого памятования.

Тут хитро получается, что при применении любого из 16 методов дыхание является и предметом памятования, и одним из четырех способов установления памятования.
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #78 : 12:08 13 Июня 2017 »

Способы установления памятования можно еще называть "сферами" (гочара):

Satiyā paṭṭhānā satipaṭṭhānā’’ti iminā atthena satigocarāpi satipaṭṭhānā.

Pancapakarana-Atthakatha 52


Из Гопалака сутты:

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9. Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu na gocarakusalo hoti:  idha bhikkhave bhikkhu cattāro satipaṭṭhāne yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu na gocarakusalo hoti.

"And how is a monk unskilled in pastures? There is the case where a monk does not discern, as they actually are, the four frames of reference. This is how a monk is unskilled in pastures.

9. Kathañca bhikkhave bhikkhu gocarakusalo hoti: idha bhikkhave bhikkhu cattāro satipaṭṭhāne yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. Evaṃ kho bhikkhave bhikkhu gocarakusalo hoti

"And how is a monk skilled in pastures? There is the case where a monk discerns, as they actually are, the four frames of reference. This is how a monk is skilled in pastures.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an11/an11.018.than.html
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.033.than.html
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Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #79 : 09:03 15 Июня 2017 »

Четыре сатипаттханы как надлежащие пастбища (гочара) упоминаются также в Макката сутте и Сакунаггхи сутте:

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Gocare bhikkhave, caratha sake pettike vīsaye.
Gocare bhikkhave, carataṃ sake pettike visaye
na lacchati māro otāraṃ, na lacchati māro ārammaṇaṃ.
Ko ca bhikkhave, bhikkhuno gocaro sako pettiko visayo:
yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā.

Wander in right pastures, in your own natural habitat.
Wandering in right pastures, in your own natural habitat,
Mara will not gain an access, Mara will not gain a footing.

And what, for a monk, are right pastures, your own natural habitat?
The four foundations of mindfulness.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn47/sn47.007.olen.html
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn47/sn47.006.than.html
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