Автор Ассаджи, 11:40 12 ноября 2005
ЦитироватьThe Public Health Service has documented that many of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. are attributable to social, behavioral, and lifestyle factors (e.g., tobacco use, lack of exercise, poor diet, and drug and alcohol abuse). Numerous studies have also documented that psychological stress is linked to a variety of health outcomes, and researchers and public health officials are becoming increasingly interested in understanding the nature of this relationship. Research has shown, for example, that psychological stress can contribute to increased heart disease, decreased immune system functioning, and premature aging. Other research has demonstrated that cognitions (attitudes, beliefs values), social support, prayer, and meditation can reduce psychological stress and contribute to positive health outcomes. Consequently, over the past decade the National Institutes of Health have increased efforts to encourage and support health and behavior research (e.g., Innovative Approaches to Disease Prevention through Behavior Change, NIH Guide to Grants and Contracts, October 24, 1997; Maintenance of Behavioral Change, NIH Guide to Grants and Contracts, January 15, 2003). Mind-body research is viewed as one component of health and behavior research. In 1999, using funds especially appropriated by Congress to the OBSSR, the NIH issued a Request for Applications (RFA) for Centers for Mind-Body Interactions and Health (OD-99-005) and subsequently awarded five P50 Center Grants (http://obssr.od.nih.gov/Content/Research/Request_for_Applications_(RFAs)/mbpage.htm). On January 9 2003, NIH issued two related RFAs on Mind-Body Interactions and Health: Research Infrastructure Program (OB-03-004; see http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-OB-03-004.html) and Mind-Body Interactions and Health: Exploratory/developmental Research Program (OB-03-005; http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-OB-03-005.html). NIH issued a RFA on July 14, 2003 for research project grants (OD-03-008; http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-OD-03-008.html). The current program announcement is based upon the July 2003 RFA.
ЦитироватьAttending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-referenceNorman A. S. Farb,1 Zindel V. Segal,1,2 Helen Mayberg,3 Jim Bean,4 Deborah McKeon,4 Zainab Fatima,5 and Adam K. Anderson1,51Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, ON M5S 3G3, Canada, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto and Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, 4Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Clinic, St. Joseph's Health Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M6R 1B5, and 5Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, Ontario, M6A 2E1It has long been theorised that there are two temporally distinct forms of self-reference: extended self-reference linking experiences across time, and momentary self-reference centred on the present. To characterise these two aspects of awareness, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine monitoring of enduring traits ('narrative' focus, NF) or momentary experience ('experiential' focus, EF) in both novice participants and those having attended an 8 week course in mindfulness meditation, a program that trains individuals to develop focused attention on the present. In novices, EF yielded focal reductions in self-referential cortical midline regions (medial prefrontal cortex, mPFC) associated with NF. In trained participants, EF resulted in more marked and pervasive reductions in the mPFC, and increased engagement of a right lateralised network, comprising the lateral PFC and viscerosomatic areas such as the insula, secondary somatosensory cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Functional connectivity analyses further demonstrated a strong coupling between the right insula and the mPFC innovices that was uncoupled in the mindfulness group. These results suggest a fundamental neural dissociation between two distinct forms of self-awareness that are habitually integrated but can be dissociated through attentional training: the self across time and in the present