Перевод "kammaṭṭhāna"

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Перевод "kammaṭṭhāna"
« : 11:24 24 Января 2018 »

Доброго времени, друзья!

Чтобы люди не покупались на ведущие в тупик медитационного вещизма кальки наподобие "объект медитации", приведу несколько первоисточников.

Из Субха сутты (МН 99):

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“brāhmaṇā, bho gotama, evamāhaṃsu — ‘mahaṭṭhamidaṃ mahākiccaṃ mahādhikaraṇaṃ mahāsamārambhaṃ gharāvāsakammaṭṭhānaṃ mahapphalaṃ hoti; appaṭṭhamidaṃ appakiccaṃ appādhikaraṇaṃ appasamārambhaṃ pabbajjā kammaṭṭhānaṃ appaphalaṃ hotī’ti. idha bhavaṃ gotamo kimāhā”ti.

"Master Gotama, the brahmins say this: 'Since the work of the household life [gharāvāsa-kammaṭṭhāna] involves a great deal of activity, great functions, great engagements, and great undertakings, it is of great fruit. Since the work of those gone forth [pabbajjā-kammaṭṭhāna] involves a small amount of activity, small functions, small engagements, and small undertakings, it is of small fruit.' What does Master Gotama say about this?"

Из Дигхаджану сутты (АН 8.54):

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Katamā ca vyagghapajja, uṭṭhānasampadā: idha vyagghapajja kulaputto yena kammaṭṭhānena jīvikaṃ kappeti, yadi kasiyā yadi vaṇijjāya yadi gorakkhena yadi issatthena yadi rājaporisena yadi sippaññatarena. Tattha dakkho hoti analaso tatrapāyāya vimaṃsāya samannāgato alaṃ kātuṃ alaṃ saṃvidhātuṃ, ayaṃ vuccati vyagghapajja, uṭṭhānasampadā.

And what does it mean to be consummate in initiative? There is the case where a lay person, by whatever occupation he makes his living [yena kammaṭṭhānena jīvikaṃ kappeti] — whether by farming or trading or cattle tending or archery or as a king's man or by any other craft — is clever and untiring at it, endowed with discrimination in its techniques, enough to arrange and carry it out. This is called being consummate in initiative.

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an08/an08.054.than.html

Из Сакка сутты:

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taṃ kiṃ maññatha sakyā, idha puriso yena kenaci kammaṭṭhānena anāpajja akusalaṃ divasaṃ aḍḍhakahāpaṇe nibbiseyya, dakkho puriso uṭṭhānasampannoti alaṃ vacanāyāti?

"What do you think, Sakyans. Suppose a man, by some profession or other [yena kenaci kammaṭṭhānena], without encountering an unskillful day, were to earn a half-kahapana. Would he deserve to be called a capable man, full of initiative?"

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an10/an10.046.than.html


О пяти составляющих:

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tatrāyaṃ anupubbikathā — tena bhikkhunā sallahukavuttinā vinayācārasampannena vuttappakāramācariyaṃ upasaṅkamitvā vattapaṭipattiyā ārādhitacittassa tassa santike pañcasandhikaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ uggahetabbaṃ. tatrime pañca sandhayo — uggaho, paripucchā, upaṭṭhānaṃ, appanā, lakkhaṇanti. tattha “uggaho” nāma kammaṭṭhānassa uggaṇhanaṃ, “paripucchā” nāma kammaṭṭhānassa paripucchanā, “upaṭṭhānaṃ” nāma kammaṭṭhānassa upaṭṭhānaṃ, “appanā” nāma kammaṭṭhānappanā, “lakkhaṇaṃ” nāma kammaṭṭhānassa lakkhaṇaṃ. “evaṃlakkhaṇamidaṃ kammaṭṭhānan”ti kammaṭṭhānasabhāvūpadhāraṇanti vuttaṃ hoti.

Vin-a 1, 1. pārājikakaṇḍaṃ, 3. tatiyapārājikaṃ, ānāpānassatisamādhikathā, para. 61


То есть можно перевести это слово как "практика".
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Re: Перевод "kammaṭṭhāna"
« Ответ #1 : 16:36 24 Января 2018 »

В Критическом словаре приводятся два значения:

1 kamma-ṭṭhāna , n. [Buddh. sa. karmasthāna; cf. SWTF s.v.], occupation;

exeg.: yena kenaci ~enā ti kasivaṇijjâdisu yena kenaci kammena, Mp V 37,10 (ad A V 83,24, q.v. infra);

— atthi ... ~aṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ ... vipajjamānaṁ appaphalaṁ hoti. atthi ... ~aṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ ... sampajjamānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hoti, M II 197,26,28 foll.; kulaputto yena ~ena jīvikaṁ kappeti yadi kasiyā yadi vaṇijjāya yadi gorakkhena +, A IV 286,3; puriso yena kenaci ~ena anāpajja akusalaṁ divasaṁ aḍḍhakahāpaṇaṁ nibbiseyya, V 83,24[[side 230]] foll.;

— ifc.
apariccatta-° (Sv-pṭ II 296,18); kas[ī/i]-° (M II 198,19; Ps III 444,20 [°i°]); gharâvāsa-° (M II 197,19; 198,26; Ps III 444,10,20); pabajjā-° (M II 197,22; 198,3; Ps III 445,7 [so read]); vaṇijj[ā/a]-° (M II 198,29 [so read]; Ps III 445,5 [°i°]).

2 kamma-ṭṭhāna, n., (t.t.) a subject (ṭhāna) or cause of meditation (cf. 11kamma 1.a.(ii) a.v.): a meditation subject constituted by a canonical text; the term ~ is only found in post canonical Pāli (including Vimut; cf. Chap. 9, T 1648a 7 foll); no. sa. equivalent; the sources mention variously 38 or 40 meditation subjects; v. infra sub exeg. b. (cf. Vism 187,4-6) and c.

exeg.: a. on the derivation of ~: ~ānī ti ārammaṇabhāvena yogakammassa pavattiṭṭhānāni, Vism-mhṭ I 130,14 (ad Vism 110,22, q.v. infra); Abhidh-av-nṭ II 329,19,20; kammam eva visesâdhigamassa ṭhānaṁ ~am. kamme vā ṭhānaṁ bhāvanârambho ~aṁ, Vibh-mṭ 156,13 (ad Vibh-a 263,10); Maṇis II 473,21,22 (ad Abhidh-s-nṭ II 197,4);

— b. the 38 meditation subjects: satthā tesaṁ aṭṭhatiṁsāya ~esu sappāyaṁ vicinitvā ~aṁ kathesi, Ja I 316,22-24; aṭṭhatiṁsāya ~esu yena yena mukhena nibbānaṁ otaritukāmā honti, Sv 393,23,25 (ad D I 223,12) = Ps II 413,25 (ad M I 329,31); aṭṭhatiṁsāya ~esu attano cittarucikaṁ kammaṭṭhānasaṅkhātaṁ gocaraṁ uggahetvā, Sv 185,32 = Ps I 254,30 = Spk III 184,6 = Vibh-a 349,7; Ps II 87,25; samaṇehi upāsitabbaṁ samaṇupāsanaṁ nāma, aṭṭhatiṁsabhedaṁ ~aṁ, Spk I 104,10 (ad S I 47,13*);

— c. the 40 meditation subjects: tatr' imāni cattāḷīsa ~āni, dasa kasiṇā, dasa asubhā, dasa anussatiyo, cattāro brahmavihārā, cattāro āruppā, ekā saññā, ekaṁ vavatthānan ti, Vism 110,21 foll. (cf. Vism 89,28); Abhidh-av 90,25 foll. (= pāḷito aṭṭhakathāto ca samodhānitvā samacattāḷīsā ti niddiseyya, Abhidh-av-nṭ II 220,23); dasa ... ekaṁ vavatthānan ti cattārīsāya samādhibhāvanāya ~āni bhāvanāvidhānañ ca vitthārato vattabbāni, Cp-a 315,23; Vin-vn 3128;

— kammaṭṭhanadāyakaṁ kalyāṇamittaṁ upasaṅkamitvā, attano cariyânukūlaṁ cattāḷīsāya ~esu aññataraṁ ~aṁ gahetvā, Vism 89,28 ≠ As 168,9;

— d. on the tradition of the 38 and 40 meditation subjects: ~āni sabbānī ti pāḷiyaṁ āgatāni aṭṭhatiṁsa aṭṭhakathāyaṁ dve cêti (so read with v.l.) niravasesāni yogakammassa bhāvanāya pavattiṭṭhānāni, Sv-pṭ I 21,24; Sp-ṭ II 202,29 foll. (ad Sp 417,6; cf. Vism 110,21 foll); aṭṭhatiṁsârammaṇesū ti ālokâkāsakasiṇadvayaṁ vajjetvā pāḷiyaṁ āgatānaṁ aṭṭhannaṁ kasiṇānaṁ vasena vuttaṁ. cattārīsañ ñ' eva ~āni, Vmv I 214,4;

the ~ is sometimes expressly mentioned: Rāhulasutte (scil. M I 420-26) pi "mettaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvetū" ti ādinā nayena ekass' eva satta ~āni vuttāni, Vism 115,3; idaṁ suttaṁ (scil. Vammīkasutta M I 142-45) therassa ~aṁ ahosi, Ps II 134,14,15; Vīṇopamaṁ (scil. A III 374-79) ~aṁ kathessāmī ti, Mp III 389,11;

the ~ is supposed to be suitable (sappāya; cf. asappāya-° and sappāya-°) to any given meditator: Satthā tesaṁ aṭṭhatiṁsāya ~esu sappāyaṁ vicinitvā ~aṁ kathesi, Ja I 316,22; attano sappāyaṁ ~aṁ gahetvā, Vism 312,30; ~aṁ sappāyaṁ bhavissatī ti, Spk I 182,20; II 369,12; Mp IV 121,22,24; ~aṁ sappāyaṁ kātuṁ asakkonto, 166,5;

defining the concept gocarasampajañña: aṭṭhattiṁsāya ~esu attano cittaruciyaṁ kammaṭṭhāna-asaṁkhātaṁ gocaraṁ uggahetvā ... gocarasampajaññaṁ nāma Sv 185,32 = Ps I 254,30;

on the role of the ~ in the process of meditation: upacārappanâvahato ti ṭhapetvā kāyagatāsatiñ ca ānāpāṇasatiñ ca avasesā aṭṭha anussatiyo, āhāre paṭikūlasaññā, catudhātuvavatthānan ti imān' eva h' ettha dasa ~āni upacārâvahāni, sesāni appanâvahānānī ti, Vism 111,10 (Vism-mhṭ I 130,14, q.v. sub exeg. a.);

in definition of appanāsamādhi and upacārasamādhi in relation to ~: dasasu ~esu appanā pubbabhāgacittesu ca ekaggatā upacārasamādhi, avasesakammaṭṭhānesu cittekaggatā appanāsamādhi, Vism 371,7;

— e. the teacher is supposed to present the student with a ~ that is congenial to his disposition: "cetopariyañāṇassa lābhī ācariyo cariyaṁ ṅatvā ~aṁ kathessati," Vism 107,24 (qu. from the Aṭṭhakathā); na ca tāva cariyânukūlaṁ ~aṁ sabbâkārena āvikataṁ, 110,12; ~aṁ yācato ... katarasmiṁ vā te ~e cittaṁ namatī ti ... evaṁ ñatvā cariyânukūlaṁ ~aṁ kathetabbaṁ, 117,3 foll.; cariyânurūpaṁ ~aṁ deti, Sv 46,29 = Mp I 65,20,21; ~aṁ adāsi, Th-a I 54,20; pāli-āgatesu aṭṭhatiṁsāya ~esu attano cariyânukūlaṁ ~am, As 168,9 (≠ Mp II 76,24 foll.); cariyânurūpāni ~āni gahetvā, Pj II 420,9; cariyânukūlaṁ ~aṁ gahetvā, Th-a I 83,6 = 104,3; Ss 103,13; Vin-vn 3154;

the ~ is likewise described as being in accordance with the meditator's inclination: cittaruciyaṁ ~aṁ gahetvā, Ja I 106,19; buddhânussati-ādīsu ca dasasu ~esu ekaṁ aññaṁ cittaruciyaṁ ~aṁ gahetvā, Sp 518,16,17; Sv 574,9; Ps II 87,25,26 (v. sub exeg. b.); Vibh-a 349,7 (v. sub exeg. b.);

with pucchati: keci Bhagavantaṁ ~aṁ pucchanti, Sv 46,28 = Mp I 65,20; manasikātabbaṁ ~aṁ (v.l. °kātabbakamma°) pucchituṁ bhante ti, Ps IV 39,12; Saṅghatthero adhunāgatapaccekabuddhaṁ sabbesaṁ anumodanaṭṭhāya katham adhigatan ti ~aṁ pucchati, Pj II 67,11 qu. Ss 334,9; ~aṁ pucchito imaṁ gāthaṁ abhāsi: "migo araññamhī" ti, Pj II 82,23; 90,12; bhikkhū Bhagavantaṁ vanditvā ~aṁ pucchanti, 133,11;

with yācati: Majjhimabhāṇaka-Revatthero ... ~aṁ yāci, Vism 95,19; ekacce ~aṁ ekacce dhammasavanaṁ yācanti, Sv 47,19 foll.; araṅṅe vāsaṁ patthento ~aṁ yācati, Mp III 220,11;

with dadāti: imassa ~aṁ adāsiṁ ... kataraṁ pana te ~aṁ saddhivihārikassa dinnan ti, Ja I 182,23,25; so tesaṁ ~aṁ adāsi. sabbe va arahattaṁ pāpuṇiṁsu, Ps I 184,11 foll.; ~aṁ me dethā ti ... tassa ~aṁ kathesi, Mp I 37,11,13; Th-a I 54,20; tassa thero bahuso ovaditvā ~am adāsi, so tena visesaṁ nâdhigacchati, Pj II 331,25;

— ~ is[[side 231]] given to a bhikkhu in connection with upasampadā or pabbajjā: Bhagavā pabbājetvā tassa ~aṁ adāsi, Ps II 190,34; upasampannakāle ca nesaṁ ekekassa visuṁ visuṁ -am adāsi, Dhp-a IV 106,10; sa pabbaji ~aṁ adā thero pabbājetvā yathārahaṁ, Mhv V 148;

with gaheti: Satthu santike ~aṁ gahetvā, Ja I 215,16 = 316,22-24 = III 246,12 = Dhp-a I 336,1,3 = Pv-a 42,13; Satthu santike dhammaṁ sutvā ~aṁ vā gahetvā, yathânusiṭṭhaṁ na patipajjati, Ud-a 97,26; Bhagavato santike ~aṁ gahetvā, Sv 747,34 = Ps I 233,24; Buddhassa santike ~aṁ gahetvā āgatā, Dhp-a I 9,4; therassa santike ~aṁ gahetvā, Ud-a 311,9; ~aṁ gahetvā pañcasatā bhikkhū arahattaṁ pāpuṇiṁsu, Vism 127,15; Ps I 185,16; Mp I 191,28; thero ~aṁ gahetvā caṅkamaṁ oruyha tatiyapadavāre arahattaṁ pāpuṇi, Vibh-a 490,6 qu. Ss 65,26; ~aṁ gahetvā vipassanāya ca kammam karoti vattañ ca pūreti Mp I 37,13; IV 64,4 foll.; samathavipassanāvasena ~aṁ gahetvā, Ps I 157,15 ≠ It-a I 168,28; Mp V 49,24; Spk I 35,6; vassûpanāyikāya ~aṁ gahetvā, Sv 581,32;

with parigaheti: uparimaggatthāya ~aṁ pariggahetvā, Sv 185,17 = Ps I 254,16; agāmake pana araññe sukaraṁ yogâvacarena idaṁ ~aṁ pariggahetvā, Sv 763,18 foll. = Sp 406,12 = Ps I 248,7;

with uggaheti: ācariyaṁ upasaṅkamitvā ~aṁ uggahetabbaṁ, Vism 179,26 foll.; Sv 1033,15; sappabhedaṁ ~aṁ uggahetvā ācariyaṁ āpucchitvā, Pj I 40,4; yoginā ubhayakosallavasena (scil. sattavidhaṁ uggahakosallaṁ and dasavidhaṁ manasikārakosallaṁ, cf. Vibh-a 56,25) ~aṁ sādhukaṁ uggahetabbaṁ, Vism 248,21 foll. qu. Vibh-a 231,13; taṁ āhāre paṭikūlasaññaṁ bhāvetukāmena ~aṁ uggahetvā, Vism 341,23 foll.; samaṇadhammakaraṇatthaṁ samādhivasena vā vipassanāvasena vā arahattapariyosānam ekaṁ ~aṁ ettakaṁ uggahetabbaṁ, Sp 789,6; tattha upanissayasampannassa sappaññabhikkhuno ~aṁ uggaṇhantass' eva koṭṭhāsa upaṭṭhahanti, Vibh-a 250,3;

with katheti: Satthā ... bhikkhusaṅghassa sugatovādaṁ datvā ~aṁ kathetvā, Ja I 119,9 = Dhp-a I 248,20; vuttaṁ h' etaṁ (scil. in the Aṭṭhakathās, cf. Vism 107,21), cetopariyaṅāṇassa lābhī ācariyo cariyaṁ ṅatvā ~aṁ kathessati, Vism 107,24; vo kilesānaṁ ~aṁ kathessāmī ti, Sv 676,16 foll. = Spk I 74,34; yāva arahattā ~aṁ kathitaṁ hoti, Sv 723,11 qu. Vibh-a 265,33; Mp III 175,22; ~aṁ katheti, Ps III 276,19; ~aṁ kathāpetvā sāyaṁ arahattaṁ pāpuṇāti, 327,15; Mp I 223,16; Pj II 306,5; tiṭṭhatu bhante uddeso, ~aṁ me kathethā ti. ~aṁ kathāpetvā sotâpanno hutvā āgamma uddesaṁ aggahesi, Ps IV 238,16; vipassanādhuraṁ pana pūressāmi, -am me kathethā ti, Dhp-a I 8,7,8; 336,1,3; mā cintayitthā ti ~aṁ kathesi. thero ~aṁ gahetvā caṅkamaṁ āruyha, Vism 635,24 foll. = Vibh-a 490,6 qu. Ss 65,26; bhikkhunā saṅgahapakkhe ṭhatvā tassa bhikkhuno ~aṁ kathetabbaṁ, As 399,12; ~aṁ kathentena pana n' eva paññavato, na mandapaññassa vasena kathetabbaṁ, Vibh-a 250,7; catumaggaphalavasena, sādhāraṇavasena ... saṅkhepen' eva ~aṁ kathayissāma, It-a I 62,31;

with ācikkhati: brahmavihāre bhāvetvā parisāya ~aṁ ācikkhi, Ja I 315,16; vedanānaṁ vasena ~aṁ ācikkhanto "vedanānaṁ samudayañ cā" (= D I 17,2 foll.) ti ādim āha, Sv 108,23; upasampādetvā ~aṁ ācikkhi, 590,24; Bhagavā rūpakammaṭṭhānaṁ, thero ānāpāṇasatin ti ubho pi ~aṁ ācikkhitvā gatā, Ps III 137,6; Ss 297,34;

with yojeti and cpd.s: Satthu santike pabbajitvā ~e anuyutto nacirass' eva arahattaṁ pāpuṇi, Ja III 36,5; ~e yojetvā sotâpannabhāvaṁ ṅatvā, Ps V 64,23; Mp I 226,17; kāmaguṇasaṅkhāte agocare cāraṁ nivāretvā ~e niyojentī uppathagamanañ ca vāreti, Pj II 147,25 (ad Sn 77);

with ghaṭati or ghaṭīyati: kamaṭṭhānaṁ gahetvā ghaṭanto vāyamanto, Ud-a 311,9; sace tassa arogaṁ sīlaṁ ~aṁ ghaṭīyati saṅkhārā pākaṭā hutvā upaṭṭhahanti, Sp 237,23; 237,30;

with upanibandhati: ekādasavidhena (cf. Vism 181,5-7, 184,3 foll.) ... nimittaggāhaṁ sampādento ~aṁ upanibandhati, Vism 187,19 (Vism-mhṭ I 209,5 foll.);

— idaṁ ~aṁ bhāvetvā ... arahattaṁ pāpuṇitukāmena ... ācariyassa santike pañcasandhikaṁ ~aṁ uggahetabbaṁ, 277,23 foll. = Sp 415,17 foll. ≠ Vibh-a 223,24 (cf. Vism 241,21 foll. for the context of kāyagatāsati); imaṁ ~aṁ (scil. catudhātuvavatthāna) bhāvetukāmena, Vism 350,32; so duvidho (i.e. samādhi viz. upacārasamādhi and appanāsamādhi) pi tesaṁ ~ānaṁ bhāvitattā bhāvito hoti, 371,9; Sp 147,6; ~aṁ bhāvetvā, Ps I 124,27 (cf. ~assa ... vibhūtabhāvadīpanatthaṁ, As 224,26; imassa ~assa bhāvanākāle, Paṭis-a 499,8); with upacāraṁ/appanaṁ pāpuṇāti: upacārappattam eva ~aṁ hoti, Vism 230,21; tass' eva ~aṁ appanaṁ ca upacāraṅ ca pāpuṇāti, Sp 427,24; ~aṁ appanaṁ pāpesi, Ps II 91,30;

with manasikaroti: ~aṁ manasikarontena supaṭṭhitaṁ satiṁ katvā, Vism 187,11 foll.; Majjhimabhāṇakā ... āhu, nimittam idaṁ, āvuso, ~aṁ punappunaṁ manasikarohi, Vism 286,9 qu. Sp 428,13; Saṁyuttabhāṇakā ... anto gabbhe ~aṁ manasikaritvā, Vism 431,35 (defining rūpasantati) qu. As 420,20; idaṁ ~aṁ (scil. ānâpāṇa) manasikaroto kassaci na ciren' eva nimittañ ca uppajjati, Vism 282,20 qu. Sp 423,29; ~aṁ manasikarontā pi nisinnā honti, Ps I 14,21 = Spk II 2,25 = It-a I 38,13; ~aṁ manasikaronto va cetiyaṅgaṇaṁ gantvā, Sv 186,16 = Ps I 255,13 = Spk III 187,22 = Vibh-a 349,22; rattiṭṭhānaṁ vā divāṭṭhānaṁ vā pavisitvā ~aṁ manasikātabbaṁ, Vibh-a 255,27;

with kammaṁ karoti, cf. 1kamma 1.a.(ii): so ~e kammaṁ karonto anāgāmiphale patiṭṭhāya, Ps II 190,34,35; imesu catusu ~esu (scil. asubhasaññā, āhāre paṭikūlasaññā, sabbaloke anabhiratasaññā, sabbasaṅkhāresu aniccasaṅṅā) kammaṁ karontā vipassanaṁ vaḍḍhetvā ... arahatte patiṭṭhahiṁsu, 420,17;

— f. a bhikkhu obtains two types of meditation subjects from[[side 232]] his ācariya: a. all-purpose meditation subjects (sabbatthakakammaṭṭhāna); b. a vade-mecum meditation subject (pārihāriyakammaṭṭhāna): duvidhaṁ ~aṁ: sabbatthakakammaṭṭhānaṁ pārihāriyakammaṭṭhānañ ca. tattha sabbatthakakammaṭṭhānaṁ nāma bhikkhusaṅghâdisu mettā maraṇasati ca, asubhasaññā ti pi eke ... cattāḷīsāya pana ~esu yaṁ yassa caritânukūlaṁ, taṁ tassa niccaṁ pariharitabbattā ... pārihāriyakammaṭṭhānan ti vuccati, Vism 97,23 foll. = Sp 416,12 foll.: ~aṁ nāma duvidhaṁ: sabbatthakaṁ pārihāriyañ ca. sabbatthakaṁ ... ca pārihāriyan ti vuccati mūlakammaṭṭhānan ti, Pj II 54,4 foll.;

for sabbattha ~aṁ at Sv 89,29 = Ps III 222,9 = Mp V 45,12 (read sabbatthak°, cf. Sv 759,24);

the meditation subject is classified as twofold in terms of its being a. material things (rūpa), b. immaterial things (v. s.v. arūpakammaṭṭhāna); duvidhaṁ ... ~aṁ rūpakammaṭṭhānañ ca arūpakammaṭṭhānañ ca rūpapariggaho arūpapariggaho ti, Sv 721,35 foll. = Ps I 275,29 = Vibh-a 264,21 foll. = It-a II 9,16 foll.;

— ct.s often refer to
tacapañcakaṁ ~aṁ, i.e., the first five of the thirty-two meditation subjects into which the kāyagatāsati subdivides viz. kesā, lomā, nakhā, dantā, taco (cf. e.g. D II 293,12 foll.: atthi imasmiṁ kāye kesā lomā +); ct.s often refer to this type of meditation subjects; according to Dhp-a II 88,3 it is that part of the thirty-two aspects of the kāyagatāsati which cannot be dispensed with (v. infra): thero ... tacapañcakaṁ ~aṁ kathetvā, Sv 590,22 foll.; thero tassa tacapañcakaṁ ~aṁ ācikkhitvā pabbājesi, Mp I 214,23; 274,24 = Th-a I 43,26; Pj II 346,11; thero ... tacapañcakaṁ ~aṁ datvā pabbājento, Mp I 247,13; Th-a II 243,17; Pj II 268,26; thero ... tassa paṭikkūlamanasikāravasena tacapañcakaṁ ~aṁ ācikkhitvā ... idaṁ hi ~aṁ sabbabuddhānaṁ avijahitam eva, Dhp-a II 88,3;

the ~ is classified as twofold in terms of a. tranquillity (samatha) and b. insight (vipassanā); only expressly mentioned in late Abhidhamma lit., but found already in the Aṭṭhakathās: samathavipassanānaṁ bhāvanānam ito paraṁ ~aṁ pavakkhāmi duvidham pi yathākkamaṁ, Abhidh-s 45,2* (nīvaraṇānaṁ samanaṭṭhena samathasaṅkhātānaṁ aniccâdivividhâkārato dassanaṭṭhena vipassanāsaṅkhātānañ ca dvinnaṁ bhāvānaṁ duvidham pi ~aṁ, Abhidh-s-nṭ 196,4); Ss 103,2;

— ~ has five links (sandhis): pañcasandhikaṁ ~aṁ uggahetabbaṁ. tatr' ime pañca sandhayo: uggaho, paripucchā, upaṭṭhānaṁ, appanā, lakkhaṇan ti, Vism 277,27 foll. ≠ Sp 418,2 foll.;

expressing the success, failure, development or the like of meditation on ~: yassa ... ~aṁ na ijjhati, tena sasambhāravibhattito bhāvetabbaṁ, Vism 353,6; 363,26; 364,8;

— cittaṁ ekaggataṁ na labhati ~aṁ vipajjati ... phāsuvihāraṁ āgamma ~aṁ sampajjati, Ja I 7,17,18; assa taṁ ~aṁ na sampajjati, Sv 758,23 = Ps I 243,28; kiñci ~aṁ satassa sampajānass' eva sampajjati, Paṭis-a 498,32;

— ~aṁ te ajja upaṭṭhitaṁ, Vism 187,14; tass' evaṁ sīghaṁ sīghaṁ gaṇayato ~aṁ nirantaraṁ pavattaṁ viya upaṭṭhāti, 279,23 ≠ Sp 420,13; tesaṁ ... tam ekam eva ~aṁ saññānānatāya nānato upaṭṭhāti, Vism 285,23 qu. Paṭis-a 500,15; bhikkhuno ... karontassa ~aṁ vaṇṇato na upaṭṭhāti, Vibh-a 250,20 foll.; 254,27 foll.; ~aṁ manasikarontassa ~aṁ na upaṭṭhāti ... ~aṁ kathāpetvā, Ps V 87,1;

— so bhikkhu temāsaṁ abbhokāse dukkhaṁ vasanto ~aṁ vaḍḍhetvā visesaṁ nibbattetuṁ n' âsakkhi, Ja I 215,24; yassa ... dhutaṅgaṁ sevantassa ~aṁ vaḍḍhati, Vism 82,18; sace pan' assâhaṁ ~aṁ vaḍḍhetvā katheyyaṁ, arahattaṁ pāpuṇeyya, Sp 40,11 foll.; kodhasamaṅgī puggalo ~aṁ gahetvā vaḍḍhetuṁ na sakkoti, Ps II 132,23; taṁ (scil. the text at A I 102,1) ajānanto ~aṁ gahetvā vaḍḍhetuṁ na sakkoti, Ps II 262,18 = Mp V 93,17; Ps II 262,27 foll.; labhetha pubbâpariyaṁ visesan ti, so evaṁ sati-ārakkhena cetasā ~aṁ uparūpari vaḍḍhento, Ud-a 321,14 (ad Ud 61,22); -am anuyuñjato -am ... vuḍḍhiṁ virūḷhiṁ vepullaṁ na gacchati, Vism 129,5 foll.;

— ~an te matthakaṁ pattan ti pucchi, Ja I 215,27 foll.; lakkhaṇaṁ āropetvā ~aṁ matthakaṁ pāpetuṁ na sakkoti, Mp V 92,23; samādahanto ~aṁ paribrūheti matthakañ ca pāpeti, Ud-a 321,9;

— tena tatth' eva ~aṁ parisodhentena vasitabbaṁ, Vism 118,7 foll.; ~esu uppannamalavisodhanatthaṁ, Sp 965,24;

— ~aṁ atiparisuddhaṁ pākaṭaṁ ahosi,Vism 39,14; sajjhāyaṁ karontass' eva ~aṁ pākaṭaṁ hoti, 241,26; yathā hi aññāni ~āni upparūparivibhūtāni honti na tathā idaṁ (scil. ānāpāṇasati as meditation subject), 283,14; yaṁ kiñci ~aṁ satassa sampajānass' eva sampajjati, ito aññaṁ pana manasikarontassa pākaṭaṁ hoti, 284,5; yaṁ thaddhalakkhaṇaṁ, ayaṁ pathavīdhātū ti ādinā nayena saṁkhepato manasikaroto ~aṁ pākaṭaṁ hoti, 351,13 foll.;

— atisīghato manasikaroto ... kevalaṁ kiñcāpi ~aṁ pariyosānaṁ pāpuṇāti, avibhūtaṁ ... hoti, na visesam āvahati, tasmā nâtisīghato manasikātabbaṁ, 244,12 foll. ≠ Vibh-a 256,2 foll. (substituting paguṇaṁ hoti for pariyosānaṁ pāpuṇāti and om. na vis° ... °baṁ);

— tassa ... cittam paṇītaṁ nāma na hoti ~aṁ vimokkhaṁ na gataṁ, Mp I 226,23;

— appamatto ti ~e satiṁ avijahanto, Sv 363,22 (ad D I 177,2) = Ud-a 174,7 (read satiṁ) (ad Ud 23,22) ≠ Ps I 180,1 (read satiṁ ?) (ad M I 39,26);

— ~assa pana avijahanam eva gocarasampajaññaṁ, Sv 194,8 = Vibh-a 356,7;

— sītaṁ khamati sahati na avīrapuriso viya appamattakena pi sītena calati kampati ~aṁ vijahati, Ps I 78,7 foll. (ad M I 10,25) = Mp III 396,28;

— paṭijaggantassa (e.g. navakamma) ~aṁ parihāyati, Vism 119,22; bahiddhā vikkhepe sati, ~aṁ parihāyati paridhaṁsati, tasmā vikkhepapaṭibāhanato manasikātabbaṁ, Vism 244,28 (cf. 243,30); Vibh-a 256,29 foll.; rūpaṁ pahāya arūpapariggahaṁ ārabhati, ~ato parihāyati, Vism 592,35; kesā lomā ti paṭipāṭiyā ~aṁ manasikaronto ~ato ca na parihāyati, Vibh-a 255,32 foll.;

— ~aṁ vissajjetvā bahiddhā puthuttārammaṇe cetaso vikkhepo paṭibāhitabbo, Vism 244,22; naṁ passati ~aṁ vissajjetvā akusalavitakkaṁ vitakkayamānaṁ, Sv 48,33 = Ps II 168,29; yassa pana n' eva vaṇṇato upaṭṭhātī ti na paṭikkūlato, na suñṅato, tena me na upaṭṭhātī ti na ~aṁ vissajjetvā, Vibh-a 254,27 foll.; eko ~aṁ avissajjetvā va gacchati, ... eko ~aṁ avissajjetvā va sayati, Vibh-a 363,22,24;

— ~aṁ pariggahetvā ānāpāṇacatukkajjhānaṁ nibbattetvā tadeva pādakaṁ katvā saṅkhāre sammasitvā aggaphalaṁ arahattaṁ sampāpuṇituṁ, Vism 269,27;

ifc. a-° (Vibh-a 251,4); akiñcaññâyatana-° (Vism 333,8); ajjhattika-°; ajjhāsayânurūpa-° (Pv-a 61,4); aṭṭha-tiṁsa-° (Ps V 40,2); atthaka-° (Sv 759,25); anukūla-° (Ps I 142,19; 168,25); anussati-°; appanā-° (Sv 773,12; Vibh-a 259,10); arūpa-° (Sv 721,35); avasesa-° (Vism 371,8); avisaṭṭha-° (Ja I 303,2); asappāya-° (Spk III 56,18); asubha-° (Ja I 182,14 foll.; Sv 1053,20); ākāsânañcâyatana-° (Vism 326,4); ānâpāna-° (Sp 417,9); ānâpāna-sati-° (Sv 763,15; Vism 267,14); āyatana-° (Spk II 369,13); āraddha-° (Vism 98,33); āsevita-° (Vism 184,32); uggahita-° (Vism 117,10; Vibh-a 224,8); uddesa-paripucchā-° (~âdi, Sp 224,28); upacāra-° (Sv 773,14); kasina-° (Spk III 264,13); kāya-gatā-sati-° (Sv 769,19); (Mp III 358,7); kāyânupassanā-sati-paṭṭhāna-° (Ps I 243,24; Vibh-a 219,34); gahita-° (Vism 98,25); catu-sacca-° (Sv 1020,19; Ud-a 165,8); citta-visodhana-° (Mp II 322,5); taca-pañcaka-° (Ja I 116,2; Mp I 36,18; 226,15); thīna-middha-vinodana-° (Mp III 356,15); dinna-dhātu-° (Mp I 161,2); dvattiṁsâkāra-° (Vism 240,26; Mp I 386,16; Spk I 286,22; Sp 40,7); dhātu-° (Vism 347,26; Ps V 52,29; Spk III 264,11; Mp II 278,10; Dhp-a I 96,4); dhātu-manasikāra-° (Vibh-a 56,24); nava-° (~-sata, Dhp-a IV 106,11); nikkhitta-° (Vism 633,15; Sv 186,30; Ps I 255,25; Spk III 185,3; Vibh-a 350,1); nibbāṇârohana-° Sp 402,12); nevasaññānâsaññâyatana-° (Vism 335,5); paguṇa-° (Sv 589,31; Ps I 249,25; Vibh-a 219,22); paguṇa-rūpârūpa-° (Vism 628,32); paṭikūla-manasikāra-° (Vism 241,28; ~-bhāvanā, Vibh-a 223,27); pariggaha-° (~-vasa, Mp II 185,27); pariccatta-° (Sp 488,10; Vibh-a 488,29); parihaṭa-° (~-tā, Ss 74,23); pārihāriya-° (Vism 97,23; Sp 416,13); Buddhânussati-° (Sv 186,19; Vibh-a 349,25; Mp II 19,10; ~âdi, Ja I 97,18); maraṇa-sati-° (Mp III 352,26; Ja I 414,29); marīci-° (Dhp-a I 336,8); middhavinodana-° (Mp IV 42,2); mula-° (Vism 181,32; Ps II 90,32; Spk I 182,12,17; Mp II 20,16); mettā-° (Sv 58,7); mettâdi-° (Sv 1053,20; Mp II 306,5); rūpa-° (Vism 627,17; Sv 721,35 foll.; Ps III 137,5; It-a II 9,16); laddhamagga-° (Mp I 44,1 o); viññānañcâyatana-° (Vism 331,26 foll); vipassanā-° (Dīp I 9; Vism 243,27 = Vibh-a 226,18; Dhp-a IV 46,17; Abhidh-s 48,10); vissaṭṭha-° (Sv 507,31; Ps II 386,25; Mp III 59,22); vissaṭṭha-sajjhāya-° (Dhp-a III 239,11); vedanā-° (Sv 126,27; Mp II 13,21); vedāna-pariggaha-° (Ud-a 384,5,20; Dhp-a I 221,12); santa-paṇīta-° (~-dassan'-atthaṁ, Sp 403,2); sappāya-° (Mp III 156,17); sabba-° (Vism 188,14; Sp 416,12,13; As 168,20; Abhidh-av-nṭ 329,23); sabb'-atthaka-° (Vism 97,22; Ps I 244,28); samatha-° (Vism 243,28 = Vibh-a 226,19; Mp III 356,17; Ss 103,22); samādhi-° (Mp III 275,13); suññatā-° (Dhp-a III 118,4); sesa-° (Vism 117,18; ~-vibhāga, Nāmar-p 1296-1503).
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Re: Перевод "kammaṭṭhāna"
« Ответ #2 : 16:46 24 Января 2018 »

В словаре Маргарет Коун дается похожее толкование.

kamma-ṭṭhāna, n.,

1. kind of activity; occupation; ...

2. a subject of meditation or contemplation; ...
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Re: Перевод "kammaṭṭhāna"
« Ответ #3 : 13:48 26 Января 2018 »

О пяти составляющих:

Цитировать
tatrāyaṃ anupubbikathā — tena bhikkhunā sallahukavuttinā vinayācārasampannena vuttappakāramācariyaṃ upasaṅkamitvā vattapaṭipattiyā ārādhitacittassa tassa santike pañcasandhikaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ uggahetabbaṃ. tatrime pañca sandhayo — uggaho, paripucchā, upaṭṭhānaṃ, appanā, lakkhaṇanti. tattha “uggaho” nāma kammaṭṭhānassa uggaṇhanaṃ, “paripucchā” nāma kammaṭṭhānassa paripucchanā, “upaṭṭhānaṃ” nāma kammaṭṭhānassa upaṭṭhānaṃ, “appanā” nāma kammaṭṭhānappanā, “lakkhaṇaṃ” nāma kammaṭṭhānassa lakkhaṇaṃ. “evaṃlakkhaṇamidaṃ kammaṭṭhānan”ti kammaṭṭhānasabhāvūpadhāraṇanti vuttaṃ hoti.

Vin-a 1, 1. pārājikakaṇḍaṃ, 3. tatiyapārājikaṃ, ānāpānassatisamādhikathā, para. 61

Из Висуддхимагги:

222. yasmā panettha idameva catukkaṃ ādikammikassa kammaṭṭhānavasena vuttaṃ. itarāni pana tīṇi catukkāni ettha pattajjhānassa vedanācittadhammānupassanāvasena vuttāni. tasmā idaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ bhāvetvā ānāpānacatutthajjhānapadaṭṭhānāya vipassanāya saha paṭisambhidāhi arahattaṃ pāpuṇitukāmena ādikammikena kulaputtena pubbe vuttanayeneva sīlaparisodhanādīni sabbakiccāni katvā vuttappakārassa ācariyassa santike pañcasandhikaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ uggahetabbaṃ.

186. The first tetrad is set forth as a meditation subject for a beginner; but the other three tetrads are[respectively] set forth as the contemplations of feeling, of [the manner of] consciousness, and of mental objects, for one who has already attained jhāna in this tetrad. So if a clansman who is a beginner wants to develop this meditation subject, and through insight based on the fourth jhāna produced in breathing, to reach Arahantship together with the discriminations, he should first do all the work connected with the purification of virtue, etc., in the way already described, after which he should learn the meditation subject in five stages from a teacher of the kind already described.

♦ tatrime pañca sandhayo uggaho, paripucchā, upaṭṭhānaṃ, appanā, lakkhaṇanti. tattha uggaho nāma kammaṭṭhānassa uggaṇhanaṃ. paripucchā nāma kammaṭṭhānassa paripucchanā. upaṭṭhānaṃ nāma kammaṭṭhānassa upaṭṭhānaṃ. appanā nāma kammaṭṭhānassa appanā. lakkhaṇaṃ nāma kammaṭṭhānassa lakkhaṇaṃ. “evaṃlakkhaṇamidaṃ kammaṭṭhānan”ti kammaṭṭhānasabhāvūpadhāraṇanti vuttaṃ hoti.

187. Here are the five stages: learning, questioning, establishing, absorption, characteristic. Herein, learning is learning the meditation subject. Questioning is questioning about the meditation subject. Establishing is establishing the meditation subject. Absorption is the absorption of the meditation subject. Characteristic is the characteristic of the meditation subject; what is meant is that it is the ascertaining of the meditation subject’s individual essence thus: “This meditation subject has such a characteristic.”

♦ evaṃ pañcasandhikaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ uggaṇhanto attanāpi na kilamati, ācariyampi na viheseti. tasmā thokaṃ uddisāpetvā bahukālaṃ sajjhāyitvā evaṃ pañcasandhikaṃ kammaṭṭhānaṃ uggahetvā ācariyassa santike vā aññatra vā pubbe vuttappakāre senāsane vasantena upacchinnakhuddakapalibodhena katabhattakiccena bhattasammadaṃ paṭivinodetvā sukhanisinnena ratanattayaguṇānussaraṇena cittaṃ sampahaṃsetvā ācariyuggahato ekapadampi asammuyhantena idaṃ ānāpānassatikammaṭṭhānaṃ manasi kātabbaṃ.

188. Learning the meditation subject in the five stages in this way, he neither tires himself nor worries the teacher. So in giving this meditation subject consisting in mindfulness of breathing attention, he can live either with the teacher or elsewhere in an abode of the kind already described, learning the meditation subject in the five stages thus, getting a little expounded at a time and taking a long time over reciting it. He should sever the minor impediments. After finishing the work connected with the meal and getting rid of any dizziness due to the meal, he should seat himself comfortably. Then, making sure he is not confused about even a single word of what he has learned from the teacher, he should cheer his mind by recollecting the special qualities of the Three Jewels.


То есть это метод практики, который ученик понемногу выясняет у учителя, и заучивает с помощью многократного повторения.
« Последнее редактирование: 17:22 26 Января 2018 от Ассаджи »
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Re: Перевод "kammaṭṭhāna"
« Ответ #4 : 13:57 26 Января 2018 »

Vism 1, 11. samādhiniddeso, catudhātuvavatthānabhāvanā, para. 22 ⇒

31.. yassa pana evaṃ bhāvayato kammaṭṭhānaṃ na ijjhati, tena sasambhāravibhattito bhāvetabbaṃ.

47. However, if his meditation subject is not successful while  he  develops  it  in  this  way,  then  he  should develop  it with constituents  by  analysis.
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