Автор Ассаджи, 19:58 15 октября 2012
Цитата: Ассаджи от 19:20 26 октября 2012Книга под редакцией Питера Скиллинга "How Theravāda is Theravāda? Exploring Buddhist Identities"
ЦитироватьХотя мы пользуемся терминами стхавиравада и тхеравада и соответственно стхавиравадины и тхеравадины практически как синонимами, мы допускаем то разграничение в их употреблении, при котором учитывается, что о тхеравадинских доктринах и текстах корректнее говорить уже в связи с «ланкийской» стадией стхавиравадинского буддизма, а о стхавиравадинских — также и в связи с историей «учения старцев», еще предшествовавшей кодификации Палийского канона. Мнение ряда буддологов, по которому тхеравада — ответвление стхавиравады — следует считать некорректным.
ЦитироватьSeventeen are the schismatic sects, and there is one that is not schismatic; together with that which is not schismatic, they are eighteen in all. That of the Theravādins, which is even like a great banyan tree, is the most excellent: the complete teaching of the Conqueror, free from omissions or admissions.
ЦитироватьIn that second century only two schools seceded from the Theravāda: the (1) Mahiṃsāsakas and the (2) Vajjiputtakas.Now seceding from the Vajjiputtakas four other schools arose: the (3) Dhammuttariyas, the (4) Bhadrayānikas, the (5) Channāgarikas and the (6) Saṃmitiyas. Again, in that second century, seceding from the Mahiṃsāsakas, two schools arose: the (7) Sabbatthivādins and the (8) Dhammaguttikas. Then again, falling off from the Sabbatthivādins, arose the (9) Kassapikas. And the Kassapikas splitting up, the (10) Saṅkantikas came into existence. The Saṅkantikas splitting up, there arose the (11) Suttavādins. Thus, falling off from the Theravādins, arose these eleven schools. These together with the Theravādins were twelve.
Цитата: Ассаджи от 11:58 03 февраля 2017Джеф Шац пишет:The Dīpavaṃsa:ЦитироватьSeventeen are the schismatic sects, and there is one that is not schismatic; together with that which is not schismatic, they are eighteen in all. That of the Theravādins, which is even like a great banyan tree, is the most excellent: the complete teaching of the Conqueror, free from omissions or admissions.The Kathāvatthu commentary:ЦитироватьIn that second century only two schools seceded from the Theravāda: the (1) Mahiṃsāsakas and the (2) Vajjiputtakas.Now seceding from the Vajjiputtakas four other schools arose: the (3) Dhammuttariyas, the (4) Bhadrayānikas, the (5) Channāgarikas and the (6) Saṃmitiyas. Again, in that second century, seceding from the Mahiṃsāsakas, two schools arose: the (7) Sabbatthivādins and the (8) Dhammaguttikas. Then again, falling off from the Sabbatthivādins, arose the (9) Kassapikas. And the Kassapikas splitting up, the (10) Saṅkantikas came into existence. The Saṅkantikas splitting up, there arose the (11) Suttavādins. Thus, falling off from the Theravādins, arose these eleven schools. These together with the Theravādins were twelve.Also, the 12th century northern Indian author Daśabalaśrīmitra refers to the Sthaviras and quotes extensively from the Vimuttimagga which he states is the "Āgama of the Ārya-Sthavira-nikāya." And the 19th century Tibetan author Jamgön Kongtrül also mentions the Sthaviras by name and, relying on Vinītadeva's Nikāyabhedopadeśasaṃgraha, also states that the "Jetavanīyas, Abhayagirikas, and Mahāvihārins are the [three] Sthaviras."http://dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?f=29&t=12929&p=210285#p210285
ЦитироватьHere thera is specified without any case ending; thera is in the sense of 'that of the elders'. What does it refer to? The tradition (vāda). 'That of the elders is the highest of traditions,' is what is meant.
Цитата: Ассаджи от 07:48 30 октября 2013Из Махавамсы:A then known by the name Mahatissa, who had frequented the families of laymen, was expelled by the brotherhood from our monastery for this fault, the frequenting of lay-families. His disciple, the them who was known as Bahalamassutissa, went in anger to the Abhayagiri (vihãra) and abode there, forming a (separate) faction. And thenceforward these bhikkhus came no more to the Mahavihara: thus did the bhikkhus of the Abhayagiri (viliüra) secede from the Theravada. From the monks of the Abhayagiri -vihara those of the Dakkhina-vihara separated (afterwards); in this wise those bhikkhus (who had seceded) from the adherents of the Theravada were divided into two (groups). http://lakdiva.org/mahavamsa/chap033.html
Цитировать"THAT redaction of the true dhamma, which was arranged at the beginning by the great theras Mahäkassapa and others, is called that of the theras. One and united was the school of the theras in the first hundred years. But afterwards arose other schools of doctrine.' The heretical bhikkhus, subdued by the theras who had held the Second Council, in all ten thousand, founded the school which bears the name Mahasamghika.From this arose the Gokulika and Ekavyoharika (schools). From the Gokulika arose the Parniatti sect and the Bahulika, from these the Cetiya sect. (Thus) there are six, with the Mahasamghika, and yet two more (groups) parted from the followers of the Thera-doctrine: the Mahimsasaka and the Vajjiputtaka bhikkhus. And there parted from them likewise the Dhammuttariya and the Bhadrayänika bhikkhus, the Chandagarika, the Sammiti and the Vajjiputtiya bhikkhus. From the Mahimsasaka bhikkhus two (groups) parted, the bhikkhus who held by the Sabbattha-school and the Dhammaguttika bhikkhus. From the Sabbattha sect arose the Kassapiya, from these arose the Samkantika bhikkhus, from these last the Sutta sect. These are twelve together with (those of) the Thera-doctrine; thereto are added the six schools named and these together are eighteen.Thus in the second century arose seventeen schools, and other schools arose afterwards. The Hemavata and the Rajagiriya and likewise the Siddhatthaka, the first Seliya bhikkhus, the other Seliya, and the Vajiriya: these six separated (from the rest) in Jambudipa, the Dhammaruci and the Sagaliya separated (from the rest) in the island of Lanka."http://lakdiva.org/mahavamsa/chap005.html
Цитировать... тхеравадинская Виная не упоминает ступы, несмотря на то, что они находились в пределах границ монастырей Тхеравады в течении столетий. Очевидно, что монахи Тхеравады начали выполнять ритуалы почитания ступ уже после того, как была составлена Виная. В противоположность этому, Винаи Сарвастивадинов и Махасангхиков (T 1435 и 1425) содержат упоминание об изображениях Будды, что указывает на то, что эти две Винаи вероятно были составлены позднее, чем палийская Виная. Таким образом некоторые Винаи, составленные уже после того, как монахи начали поклоняться ступам, включают дискуссии о почитании ступ.
Цитата: Ассаджи от 11:18 08 февраля 2017Досточимый Аналайо тоже написал о термине "Тхеравада", но его статья пока что доступна только платно:A Note on the Term TheravādaBhikkhu AnalayoAbstractWith the present article I study the trajectory of the term theravāda from its earliest occurrence in the Pāli canon to its present day usage as a designation of the form of Buddhism found in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. My presentation begins with the term theravāda in the Pāli discourses, followed by turning to the Pāli commentaries and chronicles. Next I examine the role of the Pāli canon in the Theravāda tradition and the conception of Theravāda as a monastic lineage, after which I discuss current usage and survey alternative terms.https://journals.equinoxpub.com/index.php/BSR/article/view/19519
Цитировать3:40cd, thereh' eva katatta ca theriyayam parampara; Now since the canon was compiled by the theras it was called the Thera tradition.5:1, ya mahakassapadihi mahatherehi adito, kata saddhammasamgiti theriya ti pavuccati.THAT redaction of the true dhamma, which was arranged at the beginning by the great theras Mahäkassapa and others, is called that of the theras.
ЦитироватьAlthough Buddhaghosa is almost completely silent on himself, he is not so, luckily, on his work. In the introductory verses to his commentaries he gives an outline of his plans to explain the true meaning of the Tipiṭaka.The overall strategy is to create a systematic survey of the orthodox teachings not contradicting the interpretation of the learned monks of the Mahāvihāra: samayaṃ avilomento therānaṃ theravaṃsadīpānaṃ MahāvihārādhivāsīnaṃSv 1,21f.*, verse 9Not contradicting the understanding of the luminaries of the lineage of Elders, those residing in the Mahāvihāra.How does Buddhaghosa want to achieve this? Two points are of importance. He does not, in his own understanding, act out of his own personal initiative. For, as he states in the nigamanas, he was urged by various monks to compose commentaries on the four nikāyas:The Thera Dāṭhānāga of the Sumaṅgalapariveṇa asked Buddhaghosa to write the Sumaṅgalavilāsinī on the Dīghanikāya, and this explains the title of this commentary:āyācito Sumaṅgalapariveṇavāsinā thiragūṇenaDāṭhānāgena saṃghatherena theriyavaṃsenaThe commentary on the Majjhimanikāya on the other hand was composed at a request by Buddhamitta, those on the Saṃyutta - and Aṅguttaranikāya by Jotipāla, and the one on the Aṅguttaranikāya commentary in addition by a person named Jīvaka. Who were these monks, and why did they ask? The monk of the highest rank is Dāṭhānāga who is a Saṃghathera, that is the seniormost of all monks within a certain area, perhaps in Ceylon or at least in Anurādhapura at the time. Although his monastery, the Sumaṅgalapariveṇa is mentioned, and although modern hand - books tend to assert that it was part of the Mahāvihāra, there is no evidence on its location whatsoever. Perhaps it is not by chance that a high ranking monk invited Buddhaghosa to take up his commentarial work on the very first nikāya, or āgama as Buddhaghosa prefers, and that it is emphasized only here that Dāṭhānāga as the first initiator is a member of the theriyavaṃsa.9__________________________________________________9 Similar compounds occur very rarely in late Theravāda texts, e.g., theriyavādānaṃ, Mhv (Cūḷavaṃsa) XLVI. 8. The word theriya is, however, used in the Nāgārjunakoṇḍa inscription at the time of Māḍhariputta Siri Puḷumāvi (ca. 225–240): taṃbapaṃṇidīpapasādakānaṃ theriyānam ( Vogel 1929–1930 : 22), cf. also Gethin 2012: 1–63, particularly pp. 5 ff.. On South Indian connections of Theravāda cf. also Skilling 2009: 61-93, particularly pp. 70 ff.
ЦитироватьIn a passage which occurs in both the Visuddhimagga and in the Abhidhamma Commentary we are told that one who comments [on paṭiccasamuppāda] should do so only after joining the circle of the Vibhajjavādin(s) (Vibhajja-vādi-maṇḍalaṃ otaritvā), without rejecting the teachers, neither departing from his own samaya nor giving rise to another samaya. In the conclusion to the Visuddhimagga Buddhaghosa says that he wrote it at the request of Saṅghapāla, 'a member of the lineage of the Mahāvihāravāsins, illustrious Theriyas (i.e. followers of Theravāda), best of Vibhajja-vādins'. We shall return to this passage later. Likewise, at the conclusion of the Abhidhamma Commentary the author declares he made that commentary 'without departing from the doctrine of the teachers who are pupils of the Vibhajjavādin(s)'....The inscriptional evidenceInscriptional evidence for the use of the term Vibhajjavādin is limited but crucial. In 1955–56, during the excavation of a monastic site at Nāgārjunakoṇḍa, a stone slab was discovered near the entrance to the stūpa. The slab contained a third century CE inscription (underneath an incised pair of feet with a bodhi tree inrailing to one side), referring to ācariyanaṃ Theriyānaṃ Vibhaja-vādānaṃ Kasmira-Gaṃdhāra-Yavana-Vanavāsa-Taṃbapaṃṇi-dipa-pasādakanaṃ Mahāvihāra-vasinaṃ, i.e. 'to the Theriya teachers,23 followers of the Vibhajjavāda, bringers of faith to the Kashmir, Gandhāra, Bactrian and Vanavāsa peoples and to the island of Ceylon, dwellers in the Mahāvihāra'. It is clear that the epithets are moving from the general to the particular - first the Theravādin/*Sthaviravādin half of the Saṅgha, then the Vibhajjavādin section of the Theravādins, then mention of a particularly noteworthy feature of the Vibhajjavādins and finally the name of the particular branch of the Vibhajjavādins to which they belong.____________________________________________________________________________________________23 For Theriya as equivalent to Theravāda/Theravādin, see the concluding verses to Vism; Pj I 78 (cf.98); Mhv III 40; V1; and a number of times in the Cūlavaṃsa: XXXVIII 45; XLI 17; XLII 17; XLIII 30f.; XLVIII 68; LI 16; 61. And for Theriya-vāda: XLII8; XLIV8; 80; XLVI8. Also, the introduction to Vin-vn-pṭ refers to Buddhadatta as Theriya-vaṃsa-dīpa and Sv-pṭ III 372 (vl.) has: catu-mahānikāyesu theriyenā ti attho 'the meaning is: the Theriya among the four chief nikāyas'.So far, the Pali evidence by itself suggests that the Ceylon school knew that the name 'Vibhajjavādin' referred to the tradition to which it belonged. Although by itself this is perhaps not decisive, when the epigraphic evidence from the mainland is compared with the textual passages, it is conclusive. We have already seen the inscription from Nāgārjunakoṇḍa. That inscription already demonstrates that the Mahāvihāravāsins were Theriyas and Vibhajjavādins. It can be compared directly with the conclusion to Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga cited above. The inscription (in a form of Middle Indian relatively close to Pali) reads:sidhaṃ ācariyanaṃ theriyānaṃ vibhajavādānaṃ kasmiragaṃdhāra-yavanavanavāsataṃbapaṃnidipapasādakanaṃ | mahāvihāravāsinaṃ navagasathusasanaathavyajanavinichayavisaradanaṃ ariyavasa-pavenidharanaṃ | vihāre bhagavato pādasaṃghāḍa|ni|patiṭhapito savasatānaṃ hitasukhathanāya ti. |In the later standard Pali orthography:Siddhaṃ! Ācariyānaṃ Theriyānaṃ Vibhajja-vādānaṃ Kasmira-Gandhāra-Yavana-Vanavāsa-Taṃbapaṇṇi-dīpa-pasādakānaṃ Mahā-vihāra-vāsīnaṃ navaṅga-Satthu-sāsana-attha-vyañjana-vinicchaya-visāradānaṃariya-vaṃsa-paveṇidhārānaṃ vihāre Bhagavatopāda-saṃghāṭāni patiṭṭhapitā sabba-sattānaṃ hita-sukh'-atthanāyā ti."Success! Decorative slabs of the feet of the Lord have been established with a request for the welfare and happiness of all beings in the monastery of the teachers of the Theriya school, the Vibhajjavādas who were bringers of faith to Kashmir, Gandhāra, Bactria, Vanavāsa and the island of Ceylon, the Mahāvihāravāsins who are skilled in defining both the letter and the spirit of the ninefold teaching of the Master and keepers of the line [of practice] of the four ariya-vaṃsa." Here is the conclusion to the Visuddhimagga (Vism 711f.):Vibhajja-vādi-seṭṭhānaṃ Theriyānaṃ yasassinaṃ, Mahāvihāra-vāsīnaṃ vaṃsa-jassa vibhāvino,Bhadanta-Saṅghapālassa suci-sallekha-vuttino,Vinayâcāra-yuttassa, yuttassa paṭipattiyaṃ,khanti-soracca-mettâdi-guṇa-bhusita-cetaso,ajjhesanaṃ gahetvāna, karontena imaṃ mayā saddhamma-ṭṭhiti-kāmena, yo patto puñña-sañcayotassa tejena sabbe pi sukham edhantu pāṇino."After being requested [to write the Visuddhimagga] by the insightful Venerable Saṅghapāla, of pure and simple lifestyle, skilled in behaviour according to Vinaya, dedicated to practice, his mind adorned with such qualities as endurance, gentleness and loving-kindness, a member of the lineage of the Mahāvihāravāsins, illustrious Theriyas, best of Vibhajjavādins, I did this, desiring that the saddhamma should last—by the power of the heap of puñña I have obtained, may all living beings gain happiness."I have highlighted the close similarity of phrasing in the two sources by bold-facing the parallel terms. There seems no doubt that for Buddhaghosa and for the author of this inscription in the third century CE the Mahāvihāravāsins were Vibhajjavādins. This connects directly with the evidence of the literature on the different Buddhist schools.
ЦитироватьWhile elaborating the phrase satthakatham sabbam theravadam in the Samantapasadika, the Saratthadipani, the sub Commentary on Vinaya, clarifies that it means the Pali canon inclusive of the Commentaries that was determined in the first two Buddhist Councils . The Saratthadipani further observes that the First Buddhist Council is called Therika because it was spearheaded or gave leadership by the great elders like Mahakassapa and that the Buddhist Schools that emerged after the Second Buddhist Council, should be identified as seceded from the Theravada .
Цитата: Ассаджи от 15:43 01 января 2020Другими самоназваниями школы были "тхерия", "тхерия-вада", "тхераванса", "тхера" или "тхерика":...Theriya Networks and the Circulation of the Pali Canon in South Asia: The Vibhajjavādins ReconsideredAlexander WynneAbstractThis article offers further support for Lance Cousins' thesis that the Pāli canon, written down in the first century BCE in Sri Lanka, was based largely on a Theriya manuscript tradition from South India. Attention is also given to some of Cousins' related arguments, in particular, that this textual transmission occurred within a Vibhajjavādin framework; that it occurred in a form of 'proto-Pāli' close to the Standard Epigraphical Prakrit of the first century BCE; and that that distinct Sinhalese nikāyas emerged perhaps as late as the third century CE.https://journals.equinoxpub.com/BSR/article/view/36762