Перевод "pīti" - Язык пали - Постижение

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Перевод "pīti"
« : 13:54 16 Августа 2015 »

Доброго времени!

Для начала приведу статьи из санскритско-русского словаря Кочергиной:

prīti f. 1) любовь 2) расположение; дружба 3) радость 4) удовлетворение чем-л. (Loc., -0) 5) nom. pr. супруга бога любви Камы; см. kāma 3)

prītimant 1) радостный 2) любящий кого-л. (Gen., Loc.) 3) см. prīti-pramukha

prīti-pramukha 1) сопровождаемый радостью 2) ласковый; приветливый
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Re: Перевод "pīti"
« Ответ #1 : 18:20 16 Августа 2015 »

Из темы на "Буддийском форуме":

Что-то похожее говорится в Самадханга сутте:

Он пропитывает и насыщает, заливает и наполняет само это тело восторгом и удовольствием, рожденным непривязанностью. Во всем его теле не остается ничего, что не было бы наполнено восторгом и удовольствием, рожденным непривязанностью.

Точно так же как мойщик или ученик мойщика бросает моющий порошок в медный таз и замешивает его, много раз сбрызгивая водой, так что этот шарик моющего порошка, -- пропитанный, насквозь насыщенный, наполненный влагой внутри и снаружи, -- все же не капает; так и монах пропитывает ... само это тело восторгом и удовольствием, рожденным непривязанностью.

( http://dhamma.ru/canon/an/an5-28.htm )

Дхаммапада:

374. Всякий раз, когда он во всей полноте познает возникновение и разрушение совокупностей (кхандха), он, знающий это Бессмертное (амата), достигает восторга (пити) и счастья (сукха).

По Вимуттимагге:

FIVE KINDS OF JOY

And again. it is taught that there are five kinds of joy, namely, the lesser thrill, momentary joy, streaming joy, swiftly going joy, all-pervading joy.*

(*Dhammasangani-Atthakatha 115: Khuddakā pīti, khaṇikā pīti, okkantikā pīti, pharaṇā pīti, ubbegā pīti ti pañcavidhā hoti.)

The lesser thrill is like the raising of the hairs of the body caused by being wet with fine rain. Momentary joy suddenly arises and suddenly passes away. Streaming joy is like oil that streaks down the body without spreading. Swiftly going joy is joy that spreads through the mind and vanishes not long after. It is comparable to the store of a poor man. All-pervading joy permeates the body, continues. It is like a thunder-cloud that is full of rain. Thus the lesser thrill and momentary joy cause the arising of the access through faith. Streaming joy becoming powerful causes the arising of the access. Swiftly going joy dwelling on the maṇ.dala causes the arising of both the good and the bad, and depends on skill. All-pervading joy is produced in the state of fixed meditation (appanā jhāna).

Suttavandana:

68. Khuddakā khaṇikā okkantikā ca,
pharaṇā tathā ubbegā;
pañca pītīhi pinentaṁ,
ruciyā ca namāmahaṁ.

Saddanitippakarana (Dhatumala):

Sā panesā khuddakāpīti khaṇikāpīti okkantikāpīti ubbegāpīti pharaṇāpītīti pañcavidhā hoti. Tattha khuddakāpīti sarīre lomahaṁsanamattameva kātuṁ sakkoti. Khaṇikāpīti khaṇe khaṇe vijjuppādasadisā hoti. Okkantikāpīti samuddatīraṁ vīci viya kāyaṁ okkamitvā okkamitvā bhijjati. Ubbegāpīti balavatī hoti kāyaṁ uddhaggaṁ katvā ākāse la’nghāpanappamāṇā hoti. Pharaṇāpītiyā pana uppannāya sakalasarīraṁ dhamitvā pіritavatthi viya mahatā udakoghena pakkhandapabbatakucchi viya ca anupariphuṭaṁ hoti, evaṁ pañcavidhā pīti, sā sampiyāyanalakkhaṇattā “piṇātī”ti pītīti suddhakattuvasenapi vattuṁ yujjati.
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Re: Перевод "pīti"
« Ответ #2 : 18:21 16 Августа 2015 »

Rapture (piti) 

The third factor present in the first jhana is piti, usually translated as joy or rapture.[11] In the suttas piti is sometimes said to arise from another quality called pamojja, translated as joy or gladness, which springs up with the abandonment of the five hindrances. When the disciple sees the five hindrances abandoned in himself "gladness arises within him; thus gladdened, rapture arises in him; and when he is rapturous his body becomes tranquil" (D.i,73). Tranquillity in turn leads to happiness, on the basis of which the mind becomes concentrated. Thus rapture precedes the actual arising of the first jhana, but persists through the remaining stages up to the third jhana.

The Vibhanga defines piti as "gladness, joy, joyfulness, mirth, merriment, exultation, exhilaration, and satisfaction of mind" (Vbh. 257). The commentaries ascribe to it the characteristic of endearing, the function of refreshing the body and mind or pervading with rapture, and the manifestation as elation (Vism.143; PP.149). Shwe Zan Aung explains that "piti abstracted means interest of varying degrees of intensity, in an object felt as desirable or as calculated to bring happiness."[12]

When defined in terms of agency, piti is that which creates interest in the object; when defined in terms of its nature it is the interest in the object. Because it creates a positive interest in the object, the jhana factor of rapture is able to counter and suppress the hindrance of ill will, a state of aversion implying a negative evaluation of the object.

Rapture is graded into five categories: minor rapture, momentary rapture, showering rapture, uplifting rapture and pervading rapture.[13] Minor rapture is generally the first to appear in the progressive development of meditation; it is capable of causing the hairs of the body to rise. Momentary rapture, which is like lightning, comes next but cannot be sustained for long. Showering rapture runs through the body in waves, producing a thrill but without leaving a lasting impact. Uplifting rapture, which can cause levitation, is more sustained but still tends to disturb concentration, The form of rapture most conductive to the attainment of jhana is all-pervading rapture, which is said to suffuse the whole body so that it becomes like a full bladder or like a mountain cavern inundated with a mighty flood of water. The Visuddhimagga states that what is intended by the jhana factor of rapture is this all-pervading rapture "which is the root of absorption and comes by growth into association with absorption" (Vism.144; PP.151)

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/gunaratana/wheel351.html
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Re: Перевод "pīti"
« Ответ #3 : 18:36 16 Августа 2015 »

Из Абхидхамма-сангахи:

First jhāna wholesome consciousness

Each jhāna is defined by way of a selection of mental concomitants called its jhāna factors ( jhānaṅga ). From among the many mental factors contained in each jhāna consciousness, it is these that distinguish the specific jhāna from the other jhānas and bring about the process of absorption. The first jhāna contains five factors, as enumerated in the text. To attain the first jhāna, these five factors must all be present in a balanced way, closely contemplating the object and “burning up“ the five hindrances that obstruct absorption.

Initial application ( vitakka )

In the Suttas the word vitakka is often used in the loose sense of thought, but in the Abhidhamma it is used in a precise technical sense to mean the mental factor that mounts or directs the mind onto the object.6

[6 : So hi ārammaṇe cittaṃ āropeti. Asl.114. ]

Just as a king’s favourite might conduct a villager to the palace, even so vitakka directs the mind onto the object. In the practice for attaining jhāna, vitakka has the special task of inhibiting the hindrance of sloth and torpor ( thīnamiddha ).

Sustained application ( vicāra )

The word vicāra usually means examination, but here it signifies the sustained application of the mind on the object. Whereas vitakka is the directing of the mind and its concomitants towards the object, vicāra is the continued exercise of the mind on the object.

The Commentaries offer various similes to highlight the difference between these two jhāna factors.

Vitakka is like a bird’s spreading out its wings to fly, vicāra is like the bird’s gliding through the air with outstretched wings.

Vitakka is like a bee’s diving towards a flower, vicāra is like the bee’s buzzing above the flower.

Vitakka is like the hand that holds a tarnished metal dish, vicāra is like the hand that wipes the dish.7

[7 : Vism. IV, 89-91. ]

Vicāra in the jhānas serves to temporarily inhibit the hindrance of doubt ( vicikicchā ).

Zest ( pīti )

Pīti, derived from the verb pīnayati meaning “to refresh,” may be explained as delight or pleasurable interest in the object. The term is often translated as rapture, a rendering which fits its role as a jhāna factor but may not be wide enough to cover all its nuances.8

[8 : In The Path of purification, his translation of the Visuddhimagga, Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli has translated it as happiness. This rendering is often used for sukha, the next factor, and thus may lead to a confusion of the two. ]

The commentators distinguish five grades of pīti that arise when developing concentration: minor zest, momentary zest, showering zest, uplifting zest, and pervading zest.

Minor zest is able to raise the hairs on the body.

Momentary zest is like flashes of lightning.

Showering zest breaks over the body again and again like waves on the sea shore.

Uplifting zest can cause the body to levitate.

And pervading zest pervades the whole body as an inundation fills a cavern.

The latter is identified as the pīti present in jhāna.9 [9 : Vism. IV, 94-100. ]

As a factor of jhāna, pīti inhibits the hindrance of ill will ( vyāpāda ).

Happiness ( sukha )

This jhāna factor is pleasant mental feeling. It is identical with somanassa, joy, and not with the sukha of pleasant bodily feeling that accompanies wholesome-resultants body-consciousness. This sukha, also rendered as bliss, is born of detachment from sensual pleasures; it is therefore explained as nirāmisasukha, unworldly or spiritual happiness. It counters the hindrance of restlessness and worry ( uddhaccakukkucca ).

Though pīti and sukha are closely connected, they are distinguished in that pīti is a conative factor belonging to the aggregate of mental formations ( saṅkhārakkhandha ), while sukha is a feeling belonging to the aggregate of feeling ( vedanākkhandha ). Pīti is compared to the delight a weary traveller would experience when coming across an oasis, sukha to his pleasure after bathing and drinking.10

[10 : For a detailed elaboration of this simile, see Asl. 117-18; Expos., pp.155-156. ]

One-pointedness ( ekaggatā )

The Pali term means literally a one ( eka ) pointed ( agga ) state ( tā ). This mental factor is the primary component in all five jhānas and the essence of concentration ( samādhi ). One-pointedness temporarily inhibits sensual desire, a necessary condition for any meditative attainment. Ekaggatā exercises the function of closely contemplating the object, the salient characteristic of jhāna, but it cannot perform this function alone. It requires the joint action of the other four jhāna factors each performing its own special function:

vitakka applyng the associated states on the object, and sukha experiencing happiness in the jhāna.

https://books.google.com/books?id=hxopJgv85y4C&pg=PA57
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Re: Перевод "pīti"
« Ответ #4 : 18:41 16 Августа 2015 »

The achievement of this momentary concentration, brief as it is, gives immense satisfaction. It is a powerful experience unleashing spurts of mental energy, which flood up to the surface of consciousness and inundate the mind with waves of joyous refreshment. It brings an elating thrill bordering on ecstasy, crowning the yogin's previous endeavors and inspiring further effort.

This experience marks the arising of rapture. The distinguishing feature of rapture is a strong interest and delight directed to the object of attention. Its function is to give refreshment to the body and mind. It can assume both wholesome and unwholesome forms, depending on whether it is motivated by attachment or detachment with respect to its object, but on occasions of meditative consciousness it is always wholesome. The commentaries distinguish five degrees of rapture, which make their appearance in the successive stages of mental unification. [18] "Minor rapture," the lowest on the scale, is said to be able to raise the hairs of the body. "Momentary rapture," the next degree of development, rushes through the body with an intensity likened to streaks of lightning flashing forth in the sky at different moments. "Showering rapture," the third degree, breaks over the body again and again with considerable force, like the waves on the seashore breaking upon the beach. "Uplifting rapture" is so-called because it is credited with the ability to cause the body to levitate, and the Visuddhimagga cites several cases where this literally occurs. And "pervading rapture," the highest on the scale, is said to completely fill the whole body as a huge inundation fills a rock cavern. Since the commentary to our Sutta defines joy (pamojja), the prior link in our sequence, as weak rapture, we may assume this to signify the delightful interest preceding the deliberate development of meditation, that is, in the stages when faith in the Dhamma was just acquired and the purification of moral discipline commenced. The five degrees of rapture presented here would then pertain exclusively to the rapture found in meditative consciousness. And since the last degree of rapture only gains ascendancy with the attainment of full absorption, which does not come until later, it seems that the degrees of rapture which are distinctive of the present stage of progress are the four beginning with minor rapture and reaching their peak with uplifting rapture.

http://www.dhammatalks.net/Books2/Bhikkhu_Bodhi_Transcendental_Dependent_Arising.htm
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Re: Перевод "pīti"
« Ответ #5 : 19:00 16 Августа 2015 »

Досточтимый Хенепола Гунаратана пишет:

For an analytic treatment of pīti , we must turn to the Abhidhamma piṭaka and the commentaries. The Dhammasaṅgaṇi defines the term thus:

Цитировать
What on that occasion is joy ( pīti )? The joy which on that occasion is gladness, rejoicing at, rejoicing over, mirth and merriment, felicity, exultation, transport of mind – this is the joy that there then is. 3

The commentaries pinpoint pīti in terms of its verbal derivation, characteristic, function, and manifestation:

Цитировать
It refreshes ( pīnayati ), thus it is [rapture]. It has the characteristic of endearing. Its function is to refresh the body and the mind, or its function is to pervade (thrill with rapture). It is manifested as elation. 4

3. Psy . Ethics , p. 12. “Katamā tasmiṁ samaye pīti hoti? Yā tasmiṁ samaye pīti pāmojjaṁ āmodanā pamodanā hāso pahāso vitti odagyaṁ attamanatā cittassa; ayaṁ tasmiṁ samaye pīti hoti.” Dhs., p. 18.

4. PP., p. 149. “Pītisukhaṁ ti ettha pīnayati ti piti. Sā saṁpiyāyanalakkhanā; kāyacittapīnanarasā, pharaṇarasā vā; odagyapaccupaṭṭhānā.” Vism., P. 115

Rapture is closely associated with happiness ( sukha ), but remains different in nature. Happiness is a feeling and thus belongs to the aggregate of feelings ( vedanākkhandha ). Rapture, on the other hand, belongs to the aggregate of mental formations ( saṅkhārakkhandha ). It is not hedonic but directive, referring to the object of consciousness. Shwe Zan Aung explains that “pīti abstracted means interest of varying degrees of intensity, in an object felt as desirable, or as calculated to bring happiness.” 1 When defined in terms of agency pīti is that which creates interest in the object; when defined in terms of its nature it is the interest created in the object. The Abhidhamma subcommentaries state: “It is said that pīti has, as its characteristic mark, grasping the object qua desirable.” 2 Because it creates a positive interest in the object, the jhāna factor of pīti is able to counter and suppress the hindrance of ill will. Ill will is a state of aversion implying a negative evaluation of the object. When pīti as pleasurable interest arises in the object it supplants the negative tendency towards aversion. Both the Visuddhimagga and Dhammasaṅgaṇi Aṭṭhakathā present a gradation of pīti into five categories: minor rapture ( khuddikā pīti ), momentary rapture ( khaṇikā pīti ), showering rapture ( okkantikā pīti ), uplifting rapture ( ubbegā pīti ), and pervading rapture ( pharaṇā pīti ). 3 Of these five types, minor rapture is said to be able to raise the hairs on the body. Momentary rapture is like lightning produced moment by moment. Flooding rapture descends on the body and disappears like the waves breaking on the sea- shore. Transporting rapture is able to lift the physical body and cause it to move from one place to another. All-

1. Compendium, p. 243.
2. “Ārammaṇaṁ kallato gahana lakkhaṇā ti vuttaṁ.” Three Ṭikas , p. 75. [quoted in Compendium, p. 243].
3. PP., p. 149. Vism., pp. 115-16. Dhs.A., p. 158.

pervading rapture pervades the whole body. To illustrate the power of uplifting rapture, the commentaries relate the story of the elder Mahātissa, who “aroused uplifting [rapture] with the Enlightened One as object, and rose into the air like a painted ball bounced off a plastered floor.” 1 They also relate the story of a young girl who aroused uplifting rapture while contemplating the thought of a shrine and travelled to the shrine through the air, arriving before her parents who went there by foot. 2 The five kinds of rapture are evidently ranked in degrees of intensity, minor rapture representing the weakest degree and all-pervading rapture the strongest. The five in sequence bring about the gradual perfection of concentration: Now this fivefold [rapture], when conceived and matur- ed perfects the twofold tranquility, that is, bodily and mental tranquility. When tranquility is conceived and matured, it perfects the twofold bliss, that is, bodily and mental bliss. When bliss is conceived and matured, it perfects the threefold concentration, that is, momentary concentration, access concentration, and absorption concentration. 3 Minor rapture is generally the first to appear in the progressive development of meditation, coming into being as defilements subside and the meditator experiences indications of successful concentration. Momentary rapture comes next. Though stronger in its impact than the earlier grade, momentary rapture, as its name indicates, is still ephemeral

1. PP., pp 149-50. Vism., p. 116. Dhs.A., pp. 158-59.
2. Ibid . 3. PP., p. 150. “Sā pan’esā pañcavidhā pīti gabbhaṁ gaṇhantī paripākaṁ gacchantī duvidhaṁ passaddhiṁ paripūreti, kāyapassaddhiṁ ca cittapassaddhiṁ ca. Passaddhi gabbhaṁ gaṇhantī paripākaṁ gacchantī duvidhaṁ pi sukhaṁ paripūreti, kāyikaṁ ca cetasikaṁ ca. Sukhaṁ gabbhaṁ gaṇhantaṁ paripākaṁ gacchantaṁ tividhaṁ samādhiṁ paripūreti, khaṇikasamādhiṁ, upacāra samādhiṁ, appanāsamādhiṁ ti.” Vism., p. 117.

and cannot be sustained for long. Showering rapture runs through the body, producing a great thrill but without leaving a lasting impact. Uplifting rapture is more sustained but still tends to disturb concentration. The form of rapture most conducive to the deepening of concentration is all-pervading rapture. The Dhammasaṅgaṇi Aṭṭhakathā describes the effect of this rapture thus: “When all-pervading rapture arises, the whole body is completely surcharged, blown like a full bladder or like a mountain cavern pouring forth a mighty flood of water.” 1 The Visuddhimagga states that what is intended by the jhāna factor of rapture is this all-pervading rapture, “which is the root of absorption and comes by growth into association with absorption.” 2

1. Expositor , 1:154. “Pharaṇa pītiyā pana uppannāya sakala sarīraṁ dhamitvā pūritavaṭṭi viya mahatā udakoghena pakkhandappatakucchi viya ca anuparipphātaṁ hoti.” Dhs.A., p. 160.
2. PP., p. 151. “Tāsu yā appaṇā samādhissa mūlaṁ hutvā vaḍḍhamānā samādhi- sampayogamgatā pharaṇa pīti, ayaṁ imasmiṁ atthe adhippetā pītī ti.” Vism., p. 117.

http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/printguna.pdf
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Re: Перевод "pīti"
« Ответ #6 : 19:21 16 Августа 2015 »

Цитировать

Happiness ( sukha )

This jhāna factor is pleasant mental feeling. It is identical with somanassa, joy, and not with the sukha of pleasant bodily feeling that accompanies wholesome-resultants body-consciousness. This sukha, also rendered as bliss, is born of detachment from sensual pleasures; it is therefore explained as nirāmisasukha, unworldly or spiritual happiness. It counters the hindrance of restlessness and worry ( uddhaccakukkucca ).

Though pīti and sukha are closely connected, they are distinguished in that pīti is a conative factor belonging to the aggregate of mental formations ( saṅkhārakkhandha ), while sukha is a feeling belonging to the aggregate of feeling ( vedanākkhandha ). Pīti is compared to the delight a weary traveller would experience when coming across an oasis, sukha to his pleasure after bathing and drinking.10

https://books.google.com/books?id=hxopJgv85y4C&pg=PA57

по-моему трактовка сукхи как ментального ощущения не соответствует формулам джханы, где как прямым текстом, так и косвенно сказано, что это это телесное ощущение

Цитировать
pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca vihareyya, sato ca sampajāno sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeyya, yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti: ‘upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī’ti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyya.

with the fading away as well of rapture, а bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhāna, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’

Цитировать
sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanas­sa­do­manas­sā­naṃ atthaṅgamā aduk­kha­ma­su­khaṃ upekkhā­sati­pāri­suddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyya

with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity

во второй цитате сукха и соманасса перечисляются как однородные члены, в то время как указанная интерпретация их отождествляет, что сделало бы их перечисление как самостоятельных явлений нелогичным
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Re: Перевод "pīti"
« Ответ #7 : 19:58 16 Августа 2015 »

В Вимуттимагге, в главе о четвертой джхане, сказано:

"Having abandoned pleasure". This is the abandoning of bodily pleasure.

В примечаниях приводятся ссылки на сутты.
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Re: Перевод "pīti"
« Ответ #8 : 20:03 16 Августа 2015 »

Из давней темы:

В описании развития четырех джхан, и семи факторов Пробуждения "пити" связывается с "мано" в слове "питимана" - "тот, у кого "мано" наполнен "пити"":

Tassime pa~nca niivara.ne pahiine attani samanupassato paamojja.m jaayati, pamuditassa piiti jaayati, piitimanassa kaayo passambhati, passaddhakaayo sukha.m vedeti, sukhino citta.m samaadhiyati.

(Саманняпхала сутта, приблизительный русский перевод:

Когда он видит себя отказавшимся от этих пяти преград, в нем рождается удовлетворенность, у удовлетворенного рождается радость, от радости в сердце (мано) успокаивается тело, успокоившиеся телом ощущает счастье, счастливый сосредоточен в мыслях.)

Piitimanassa  kaayopi  passambhati,  cittampi  passambhati.

(Анапанасати сутта, приблизительный русский перевод:

У того, чей "мано" наполнен восторгом, успокаивается тело и успокаивается ум.)


А про "сукха" говорится, что оно чувствуется телом, "кая":

Piitiyaa ca viraagaa upekkhako ca viharati, sato ca sampajaano, sukha~nca kaayena pa.tisa.mvedeti, ya.m ta.m ariyaa aacikkhanti  ‘upekkhako  satimaa  sukhavihaarii’ti tatiya.m jhaana.m upasampajja viharati.

(Махасатипаттхана сутта, приблизительный перевод:

С угасанием восторга (пити), он пребывает в безмятежном наблюдении (упекха), с памятованием (сати) и осознанностью (сампаджання); и чувствует телом счастье (сукха).)

...

Джеффри Шатц приводит уместные цитаты из главы Патисамбхидамагги, посвященной Анапанасати:

Regarding happiness (piti), the Commentary on Breathing, verse 291 (from the Patisambhidamagga), gives various synonyms as this term pertains to jhana:

“Any happiness (piti), delight (pamojja), rejoicing (amodana), joy (pamodana), shining mirth (bhasa pabhasa), bliss (vitti), elation (odagya), satisfaction (attamanta), mental uplift (cittassa), is happiness (piti).”

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