Перевод "paññā"

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Перевод "paññā"
« : 13:35 23 Июня 2013 »

Досточтимый Тханиссаро пишет:

The Pali word for discernment, paññā, is often translated as “wisdom.” However, there are two connected reasons for translating it as “discernment” instead. The first relates to the place of paññā in the Pali language. It’s related to the verb pajanati, which refers to the mental act that discerns events and actions, detecting when they are distinct from one another and when they are connected as causes and effects. Pajanati also refers to the act of judging intentions by their effects and discerning subtle phenomena that are ordinarily hard to detect. Although these mental acts contain an element of wisdom, there is no appropriate English verb related to wisdom that covers all of these functions. The English verb “discern,” however, does cover these functions, and so—to keep the connection between the verb and the noun clear—it seems best to translate pajanati as “discern” and paññā as “discernment.”

The second reason for translating paññā as “discernment” relates to its role in the practice. As we will see, the Buddha’s strategy for finding true happiness is to focus discernment on the processes of intentional action, to determine whether they are skillful—conducive to long-lasting happiness—or not. Part of this strategy, especially at the highest stages of the practice, is to regard discernment itself as an intentional action. This helps you gauge when to foster it and when to abandon it for a higher purpose: total release. Because wisdom is hard to think of as an action, “discernment” seems to work better in practice as a translation for paññā.

http://www.dhammatalks.org/Archive/Writings/Discernment_v130618.pdf
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manikarnika

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Re: Перевод "paññā"
« Ответ #1 : 20:05 23 Июня 2013 »

"Различаюшая мудрость"? Но лучше оставлять без перевода, с заглавной буквы. "Панна".
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Re: Перевод "paññā"
« Ответ #2 : 07:53 09 Октября 2013 »

У глагола pajānāti есть понудительный залог, paññapeti, "описывает, объясняет", который можно истолковать буквально как "делает известным, познанным".

По санскритско-русскому словарю Кочергиной:

prajñā узнавать; познавать
prajñā 1) мудрость; знание 2) намерение, цель
prajñāna 1) познание 2) знание 3) отличительная черта
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Bahupada

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Re: Перевод "paññā"
« Ответ #3 : 15:25 04 Ноября 2013 »

У глагола pajānāti есть понудительный залог, paññapeti, "описывает, объясняет", который можно истолковать буквально как "делает известным, познанным".
С некоторой натяжкой можно сказать - "знакомит", в силу родства корней.
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Re: Перевод "paññā"
« Ответ #4 : 19:49 02 Октября 2015 »

Распространённым переводом у нас является "мудрость", хотя Тханиссаро Бхиккху переводит как discernment.
Также в переводах на dhamma.ru я видел вариант "постижение".

меня этот термин интересует прежде всего в части "сутты запуска колеса Дхаммы", где используется судя по всему несколько близких по значению слов:
cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi
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Re: Перевод "paññā"
« Ответ #5 : 20:51 02 Октября 2015 »

Хорошая статья по терминам "винняна" и "пання"

Two types of saving knowledge in the Paali suttas

By Donald K. Swearer

http://buddhism.lib.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/donald.htm

Эти явления тесно связаны:

Discernment

As he was sitting there, he said to Ven. Sariputta, "Friend, 'One of poor discernment, one of poor discernment': Thus is it said. To what extent is one said to be 'one of poor discernment'?"

"'One doesn't discern, one doesn't discern': Thus, friend, one is said to be 'one of poor discernment.' And what doesn't one discern? One doesn't discern, 'This is stress.' One doesn't discern, 'This is the origination of stress.' One doesn't discern, 'This is the cessation of stress.' One doesn't discern, 'This is the practice leading to the cessation of stress.' 'One doesn't discern, one doesn't discern': Thus one is said to be 'one of poor discernment.'"

Saying, "Very good, friend," Ven. Maha Kotthita — delighting in & approving of Ven. Sariputta's statement — asked him a further question: "Discerning, discerning': Thus is it said. To what extent, friend, is one said to be 'discerning'?"

"'One discerns, one discerns': Thus, friend, one is said to be 'discerning.' And what does one discern? One discerns, 'This is stress.' One discerns, 'This is the origination of stress.' One discerns, 'This is the cessation of stress.' One discerns, 'This is the practice leading to the cessation of stress.' 'One discerns, one discerns': Thus one is said to be 'discerning.'"

Consciousness

"'Consciousness, consciousness': Thus is it said. To what extent, friend, is it said to be 'consciousness'?"

"'It cognizes, it cognizes': Thus, friend, it is said to be 'consciousness.' And what does it cognize? It cognizes 'pleasant.' It cognizes 'painful.' It cognizes 'neither painful nor pleasant.' 'It cognizes, it cognizes': Thus it is said to be 'consciousness.'"

"Discernment & consciousness, friend: Are these qualities conjoined or disjoined? Is it possible, having separated them one from the other, to delineate the difference between them?"

"Discernment & consciousness are conjoined, friend, not disjoined. It's not possible, having separated them one from the other, to delineate the difference between them. For what one discerns, that one cognizes. What one cognizes, that one discerns. Therefore these qualities are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is not possible, having separated them one from another, to delineate the difference between them."

"Discernment & consciousness, friend: What is the difference between these qualities that are conjoined, not disjoined?"

"Discernment & consciousness, friend: Of these qualities that are conjoined, not disjoined, discernment is to be developed, consciousness is to be fully comprehended."

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.043.than.html
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Re: Перевод "paññā"
« Ответ #6 : 21:16 02 Октября 2015 »

Из словаря досточтимого Ньянатилоки:

paññā

'understanding, knowledge, wisdom, insight', comprises a very wide field. The specific Buddhist knowledge or wisdom, however, as part of the Noble Eightfold Path (magga, q.v.) to deliverance, is insight (vipassanā, q.v.), i.e. that intuitive knowledge which brings about the 4 stages of holiness and the realization of Nibbāna (s. ariyapuggala), and which consists in the penetration of the impermanency (anicca, q.v.), misery (dukkha, s. sacca) and impersonality (anattā) of all forms of existence. Further details, s. under tilakkhana.

With regard to the condition of its arising one distinguishes 3 kinds of knowledge knowledge based on thinking (cintā-mayā-paññā), knowledge based on learning (suta-mayā-paññā), knowledge based on mental development (bhāvanā-mayā-paññā) (D. 33).

" 'Based on thinking' is that knowledge which one has accquired through one's own thinking, without having learnt it from others. 'Based on learning' is that knowledge which one has heard from others and thus acquired through learning. 'Based on mental development' is that knowledge which one has acquired through mental development in this or that way, and which has reached the stage of full concentration" (appanā, q.v.) (Vis.M. XIV).

Wisdom is one of the 5 mental faculties (s. bala), one of the 3 kinds of training (sikkhā, q.v.), and one of the perfections (s. pāramī) For further details, s. vipassanā, and the detailed exposition in Vis.M. XIV, 1-32.

http://www.palikanon.com/english/wtb/n_r/pannaa.htm
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Re: Перевод "paññā"
« Ответ #7 : 21:38 02 Октября 2015 »

См. также:

The Buddha's Path to Deliverance: A Systematic Exposition in the Words of the Sutta Piṭaka
Nyanatiloka Thera

https://books.google.com/books?id=TjDkBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA127
https://books.google.com/books?id=kLQzuaw3xUYC&pg=PA149

Linguistic Approach to Buddhist Thought
Genjun Sasaki

https://books.google.com/books?id=vUBPAzlxJPUC&pg=PA96

THE PERFECTIONS LEADING TO ENLIGHTENMENT
Nina van Gorkom

http://www.abhidhamma.org/perfections%20of%20enlightenment.htm#Chapter%205

Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge
K N Jayatilleke

https://books.google.com/books?id=6pBTAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA302
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Re: Перевод "paññā"
« Ответ #8 : 15:09 04 Октября 2015 »

Из санскритско-русского словаря Кочергиной:

prajña 1) сведущий, знающий (-о) 2) образованный, ученый
prajñatā f. знание
prajñapti f. 1) сообщение, объявление 2) обучение 3) наставление
prajñā I узнавать; познавать
prajñā II f. 1) мудрость; знание 2) намерение, цель
prajñāta широкоизвестный
prajñātar 1. знающий, сведущий 2. m. проводник
prajñātman bah. разумный
prajñāna m. 1) познание 2) знание 3) отличительная черта
prajñā-pāramitā f. 1) совершенство познания 2) филос. запредельная мудрость
prajñā-mātrā 1) элемент познания 2) орган чувств
prajñāvant 1) умный; мудрый 2) знающий 3) проницательный
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Re: Перевод "paññā"
« Ответ #9 : 19:14 05 Октября 2015 »

Распространённым переводом у нас является "мудрость", хотя Тханиссаро Бхиккху переводит как discernment.

"Discernment" тоже можно перевести как "мудрость".

Цитировать
Также в переводах на dhamma.ru я видел вариант "постижение".

Не встречал такого на этом сайте.

Цитировать
меня этот термин интересует прежде всего в части "сутты запуска колеса Дхаммы", где используется судя по всему несколько близких по значению слов:
cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi

Тут я бы предложил, например, "познание", поскольку "знание" уже занято словом "ñāṇa".
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Re: Перевод "paññā"
« Ответ #10 : 19:43 05 Октября 2015 »

Двумя словами, в другом контексте, можно сказать "способность познания", тем более что "пання" является одной из "сил" (способностей, "бала").
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Re: Перевод "paññā"
« Ответ #11 : 15:28 30 Января 2019 »

Из четырнадцатой главы Висуддхимагги:


    3. (ii) IN WHAT SENSE IS IT UNDERSTANDING? It is understanding (paññā) in the sense of act of understanding (pajānana).1 What is this act of understanding? It is knowing (jānana) in a particular mode separate from the modes of perceiving (sañjānana) and cognizing (vijānana). For though the state of knowing (jānana-bhāva) is equally present in perception (saññā), in consciousness (viññāṇa), and in understanding (paññā), nevertheless perception is only the mere perceiving of an object as, say, blue or yellow; it cannot bring about the penetration of its characteristics as impermanent, painful, and not-self. Consciousness knows the objects as blue or yellow, and it brings about the penetration of its characteristics, but it cannot bring about, by endeavouring, the manifestation of the [supramundane] path. Understanding knows the object in the way already stated, it brings about the penetration of the characteristics, and it brings about, by endeavouring, the manifestation of the path.

    4. Suppose there were three people, a child without discretion, a villager, and a money-changer, who saw a heap of coins lying on a money-changer’s counter. The child without discretion knows merely that the coins are figured and ornamented, long, square or round; he does not know that they are reckoned as valuable for human use and enjoyment. And the villager knows that they are figured and ornamented, etc., and that they are reckoned as valuable for human use and; but he does not know such distinctions as, “This one is genuine, this is false, this is half-value.” The money-changer knows all those kinds, and he does so by looking at the coin, and by listening to the sound of it when struck, and by smelling its smell, tasting its taste, and weighing it in his hand, and he knows that it was made in a certain village or town or city or on a certain mountain or by a certain master. And this may be understood as an illustration.

    5. Perception is like the child without discretion seeing the coin, because it apprehends the mere mode of appearance of the object as blue and so on. Consciousness is like the villager seeing the coin, because it apprehends the mode of the object as blue, etc., and because it extends further, reaching the penetration of its characteristics. Understanding is like the money-changer seeing the coin, because, after apprehending the mode of the object as blue, etc., and extending to the penetration of the characteristics, it extends still further, reaching the manifestation of the path.

    That is why this act of understanding should be understood as “knowing in a particular mode separate from the modes of perceiving and cognizing.” For that is what the words “it is understanding in the sense of act of understanding” refer to.
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