Перевод "nimitta" 2

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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #20 : 07:06 05 Июня 2014 »

Из словаря Рис-Девидса:

Nimitta: (nt.) ... M I.119 ( = five sorts of mental images); Nd2 659; DhsA 53 ( = ākāra).

Ден Люстхаус пишет:

Another term in this tug of war, one pivotal for this overall argument, is ākāra (Tib. rnam pa; Ch. xiang). As AP (Ālambana-parīkṣā) notes, the opponent tends to treat it as meaning the physical features of the object, such as its shape, size, color (equivalent to saṁsthāna, which means precisely those sort of features), whereas Dignāga (as did other Buddhists) took ākāra to mean "mental image," the image that appears in cognition. For the opponents these tend to be the same thing, since they assume that what appears in cognition is an exact replica of something external, so that all the features appearing in that mental image are precise facsimiles of the actual thing out there.

Dignāga's position is more like Kant's Vorstellungen ("representations") or Husserl's noetic constitution: cognition consists of mental constructions that display already embedded mental imagery for cognition, so that one sees one's own projections (habitual for Husserl and Dignāga) as things out there. Dignāga concludes that the relation, if any, between what one perceives and anything outside of one's cognitive sphere is epistemologically nearly impossible to determine one way or the other.

https://www.academia.edu/7257373/Lu_Chengs_Chinese_Translation_of_the_Tibetan_Version_of_Dignagas_Alambana-parik_a-v_tti_An_English_Translation
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #21 : 11:59 27 Ноября 2014 »

О свободе от представлений в Йогачара-бхуми:

The Ālaya Treatise suggests that the way we usually conceive things is intimately connected to this underlying sense of self:

Mental-cognitive awareness (mano-vijñāna) is said to be based on mentation (manas) because as long as mentation has not ceased then [mental-cognitive awareness] is not freed from the bondage of  perception (vijñapti) in regard to phenomena (nimitta); but if [mentation] has ceased, then [mental-cognitive awareness] will be freed.

As long as this mentation, with its accompanying ignorance, self-view and sense of “I am” persists (“until it is completely destroyed”), then so long will mental cognitive awareness (mano-vijñāna) be bound to cognize phenomena (nimitta) in relation to this sense of self.

...

Serious practitioners will come to “personally realize that they are bound by the external bond of objective phenomena (nimitta-bandhana) and by the internal bonds of spiritual corruption (dauṣṭhulya),” which occurs once they have attained deep understanding of the Four Truths (satyābhisamaya) ...

https://www.scribd.com/doc/82046477/22-Waldron-Alaya-Treatise-of-YogacaraBhumi
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #22 : 10:18 23 Августа 2015 »

Судя по всему, Бхиккху Бодхи использует перевод "sign" в силу устоявшейся традиции английского перевода. Как он пишет в примечании 54 к переводу Бодджханга-самьютты:

The word nimitta is difficult to render in a way that fits all the major contexts where it occurs. I returned to "sign" only after several experiments with alternatives - "aspect", "feature," and "appearance" - proved unsatisfactory.

https://books.google.com/books?id=MEA6AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA1900&lpg=PA1900

То есть он поэкспериментировал с различными вариантами, но в итоге вернулся к подходу его учителя, досточтимого Нянамоли, который каждое палийское слово, независимо от контекста, передавал одним и тем же английским словом, - а для передачи слова "нимитта" досточтимый Нянамоли всегда использовал слово "sign".
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #23 : 00:01 04 Сентября 2015 »

"But it has neither colour nor shape; for if it had, it would be cognizable by the eye, gross, susceptible of comprehension and stamped with the three characteristics. But it is not like that. For it is born only of perception in one who has obtained concentration, being a mere mode of appearance."

"Tañca kho pana neva vaṇṇavantaṁ, na saṇṭhānavantaṁ, yadi hi taṁ īdisaṁ bhaveyya, cakkhu-viññeyyaṁ siyā oḷārikam sammasanūpagaṁ tilakkhaṇabbhāhataṁ. Na pan' etaṁ tādisaṁ, kevalam hi samādhi-lābhino upaṭṭhānākāramattaṁ:saññajam etanti".

Висуддхимагга IV.31 (126)

Здесь в Висуддхимагге, по-видимому, позаимствована фраза из Вимуттимагги:

"To the yogin who attends to the incoming breath with mind that is cleansed of the nine lesser defilements the image arises with a pleasant feeling similar to that which is produced in the action of spinning cotton or silk cotton. Also, it is likened to the pleasant feeling produced by a breeze. Thus in breathing in and out, air touches the nose or the lip and causes the setting-up of air perception mindfulness. This does not depend on colour or form. This is called the image. If the yogin develops the image [sign] and increases it at the nose-tip, between the eyebrows, on the forehead or establishes it in several places, he feels as if his head were filled with air. Through increasing in this way his whole body is charged with bliss. This is called perfection."

(Mindfulness of Respiration. Procedure, pp.158-159)
https://archive.org/stream/ArahantUpatossa-Vimuttimagga-PathOfFreedom.pdf/ArahantUpatissaEharaN.r.tr-PathOfFreedomvimuttimagga#page/n221/mode/2up/

Связь с обликом (āкāра) объясняется в Мохавиччхедани (Mya: .161):

"Samathova taṁ ākāraṁ gahetvā puna pavattetabbassa samathassa nimittanti samathanimittaṁ."

    "Представление (нимитта) спокойствия (саматха) – это представление для повторного вызова спокойствия после улавливания облика (āкāра) спокойствия."

Таким образом, уловив однажды характерные признаки спокойствия, практикующий может, настроившись на это представление, вновь достичь спокойствия. Например, уловив представление достижения медитативного погружения (джхана), практикующий может вновь его достичь, настроившись на уловленное представление.

Такая настройка описывается в Упаккилеса и Гави суттах:
http://awake.kiev.ua/dhamma/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/2Majjhima-Nikaya/Majjhima3/128-upakkilesa-e.html
http://dhamma.ru/canon/an/an9-35.htm
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #24 : 12:20 08 Сентября 2016 »

Из словаря Рис-Девидса:

Nimitta: (nt.) ... M I.119 ( = five sorts of mental images); Nd2 659; DhsA 53 ( = ākāra).

Акара (санскр. äkära, тиб. нампа) — в буддизме ментальная форма, познавательный образ, аспект или содержание сознания. Проблемы перевода термина связаны с его многозначностью в буд. традиции. В эпистемологии реалистич. школ вайбхашики и саутрантики А. называют образ или внутреннее содержание познават. опыта, к-рый возникает в результате контакта органов чувств и конкретного объекта. Вместе с тем А. может быть и тот аспект перцептивного опыта — напр., красный цвет розы, — на к-рый направлено внимание и к-рый в дальнейшем будет удостоверен в ходе перцептивного суждения: «эта роза красная». Если в первом случае можно считать А. внеконцептуальным и невербальным ментальным событием, то во втором выделение аспекта уже является актом различающего познания.
Эти два значения А. развивались соответственно саутрантикой и вайбхашикой.
Согласно йогачаре, А. — это проекция, порожденная не внешним объектом, а мысленным отпечатком (васана). В эпистемологии Дигнаги-Дхармакирти акт познания состоит в том, что сознание вступает в прямое или косвенное отношение с объектом, в результате к-рого следующий момент познават. процесса будет представлять собой А. — образ объекта, также обозначаемого термином сарупъя или садришья, — имеющий форму, аналогичную форме объекта.

Однако Дигнага утверждает, что познавательный акт отражается в двух образах: образе познаваемого (грахъя-акара) и образе познающего (грахака-акара), где первый представляет содержание познания, а второй передает ощущение субъективности этого познавательного акта.

В.Г. Лысенко
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #25 : 22:23 09 Октября 2016 »

Интересна последовательность всё более тонких настроек при практике Анапанасати, описанная в Патисамбхидамагге:

Iti kira ‘‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’’ti sikkhati, ‘‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’’ti sikkhati. Evaṃ sante vātūpaladdhiyā ca pabhāvanā hoti, assāsapassāsānañca pabhāvanā hoti, ānāpānassatiyā ca pabhāvanā hoti. Ānāpānassatisamādhissa ca pabhāvanā hoti; tañca naṃ samāpattiṃ paṇḍitā samāpajjantipi vuṭṭhahantipi.

So then he trains thus 'I shall breathe in calming the body fabrication;' he trains thus 'I shall breathe out calming the body fabrication:' that being so, there is production of the experience of wind, and there is production of out-breaths and in-breaths, and there is production of mindfulness of breathing, and there is production of concentration by mindfulness of breathing, and consequently the wise enter into and emerge from that attainment.

Yathā kathaṃ viya? Seyyathāpi kaṃse ākoṭite paṭhamaṃ oḷārikā saddā pavattanti. Oḷārikānaṃ saddānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi oḷārike sadde, atha pacchā sukhumakā saddā pavattanti. Sukhumakānaṃ saddānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi sukhumake sadde, atha pacchā sukhumasaddanimittārammaṇatāpi cittaṃ pavattati.

Like what? Just as when a gong is struck. At first gross sounds occur and [mind occurs] because the sign of the gross sounds is well apprehended, well attended to, well observed; and when the gross sounds have ceased, then afterwards faint sounds occur and [mind occurs] because the sign of the faint sounds is well apprehended, well attended to, well observed; and when the faint sounds have ceased, then afterwards mind occurs because it has the sign of the faint sounds as its object --

Evamevaṃ paṭhamaṃ oḷārikā assāsapassāsā pavattanti; oḷārikānaṃ assāsapassāsānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi oḷārike assāsapassāse, atha pacchā sukhumakā assāsapassāsā pavattanti. Sukhumakānaṃ assāsapassāsānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi sukhumake assāsapassāse, atha pacchā sukhumakaassāsapassāsānaṃ nimittārammaṇatāpi cittaṃ na vikkhepaṃ gacchati.

so too, at first gross in-breaths and out-breaths occur and [mind does not become distracted] because the sign of the gross in­breaths and out-breaths is well apprehended, well attended to, well ob­served; and when the gross in-breaths and out-breaths have ceased, then afterwards faint in-breaths and out-breaths occur and [mind does not become distracted] because the sign of the faint in-breaths and out-breaths is well apprehended, well attended to, well observed; and when the faint in-breaths and out-breaths [are so faint that perception of them] has ceased, then afterwards mind does not become distracted because it has the sign of the faint in-breaths and out-breaths as its object

Брайан Левман пишет, что это прекрасное описание трех видов нимитты, улавливаемых для достижения джханы:

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I think it was a very good description of the three nimittas with regards to ānāpāna meditation (if I'm reading it right), the rough breathing being the parikamma-nimitta, the sublte breathing, the uggaha-nimitta and the recollection of the latter the paṭibhāga-nimitta

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/palistudy/conversations/messages/4814
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #26 : 15:10 21 Января 2021 »

Майк НЗ составил подборку отрывков из сутт, где слово "нимитта" употребляется в контексте развития собранности ума:
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Bhikkhu Analyo's Encyclopaedia entry on nimitta
http://www.buddhismuskunde.uni-hamburg.de/fileadmin/pdf/analayo/publications.htm

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123)      "Nimitta", in EB, 2003, vol. 7 no. 1 pp. 177–179 download
discusses it's meaning as
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'sign', in the sense of being a characteristic mark of things
In that sense it appears often in the suttas. Thanissaro Bhikkhu translates it as "theme".

Various teachers, such as Ajahn Brahm, and Pa Auk Sayadaw (and Ven Analayo himself according to some of his talks: http://www.audiodharma.org/teacher/208/, http://www.dharmaseed.org/teacher/439/) stress the importance of nimittas for entry into jhana.

In his Encyclopaedia entry Ven Analayo notes:
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The relation of the nimitta to the development of concentration is also reflected in the expressions sign of tranquilty (samathaanimitta), sign of concentration (samadhinimitta), and sign of the mind (cittanimitta), which occur in serveral instances in the discourses. the development of beneficial types of nimitta is particularly relevant to the beginning stages of samatha meditation.
He goes on to describe the commentarial discussion in the Visuddhimagga http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/nanamoli/index.html.

I thought it would be interesting to look at the passages in the Suttas that refer to the nimittas associated with tranquilly and concentration. These are from Ven Analayo's footnotes to the Encyclopaedia article. The quotations and page numbers are from the Wisdom Publications translations by Walshe/Nanamoli/Bodhi.

Sign of tranquilty (samathaanimitta)

DN iii 213. DN 33, page 481
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1.9. ‘There are [sets of] two things that were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord... Which are they?
...
(23) ‘Calm and insight (samatho ca vipassanā ca).
 
(24) ‘The sign of calm and grasping the sign (samatha-nimittañ ca paggaha-nimittañ ca).
...

SN v 66. SN 46.2, p 1570
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“And what, bhikkhus, is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of concentration and for the fulfilment by development of the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration? There are, bhikkhus, the sign of serenity, the sign of nondispersal[62] frequently giving careful attention to them is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of concentration and for the fulfilment by development of the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration.
    [62] Spk: The sign of serenity (samathanimitta) is serenity itself as well as its object (Spk-pṭ: the paṭibhāganimitta or counterpart sign); the sign of nondispersal (abyagganimitta) is synonymous with it.

SN v 105. SN 46.51, p 1599
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“And what, bhikkhus, is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of concentration and for the fulfilment by development of the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration? There are, bhikkhus, the sign of serenity, the sign of nondispersal: frequently giving careful attention to them is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of concentration and for the fulfilment by development of the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration.
Another translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn46/sn46.051.than.html

Sign of concentration (samadhinimitta)

DN iii 226. DN 33, p 490
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What is (d) the effort of preservation? Here, a monk keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration which has arisen, such as a skeleton, or a corpse that is full of worms, blue-black, full of holes, bloated.

DN iii 242. DN 33, p 498
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(25) ‘Five bases of deliverance (vimuttāyatanāni): Here, (a) the Teacher or a respected fellow-disciple teaches a monk Dhamma. And as he receives the teaching, he gains a grasp of both the spirit and the letter of the teaching. At this, joy arises in him, and from this joy, delight (pīti); and by this delight his senses are calmed, he feels happiness (sukhaṁ) as a result, and with this happiness his mind is established; (b) he has not heard it thus, but in the course of teaching Dhamma to others he has learnt it by heart as he has heard it; or (c) as he is chanting the Dhamma ... ; or (d) ... when he applies his mind to the Dhamma, thinks and ponders over it and concentrates his attention on it (anupekkhati); or (e) when he has properly grasped some concentration-sign (samādhi-nimittam ), has well considered it, applied his mind to it (supadhāritaṁ), and has well penetrated it with wisdom (suppaṭividdhaṁ paññāya). At this, joy arises in him, and from this joy, delight; and by this delight his senses are calmed, he feels happiness as a result, and with this happiness his mind is established.

DN iii 279. DN 34, p 515. [As in DN iii 242]

MN i 249. MN 36, p 342.
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45. “Aggivessana, I recall teaching the Dhamma to an assembly of many hundreds, and even then each person thinks of me: ‘The recluse Gotama is teaching the Dhamma especially for me.’ But it should not be so regarded; the Tathāgata teaches the Dhamma to others only to give them knowledge. When the talk is finished, Aggivessana, then I steady my mind internally, quieten it, bring it to singleness, and concentrate it on that same sign of concentration as before, in which I constantly abide.”
    MA explains the “sign of concentration” (sam̄dhinimitta) here as the fruition attainment of emptiness (suññataphalasamāpatti ). See also MN 122.6.
Another translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.036.than.html

MN i 301. MN 44, p 398-399
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12. “Lady, what is concentration? What is the basis of concentration? What is the equipment of concentration? What is the development of concentration?”
 
“Unification of mind, friend Visākha, is concentration; the four foundations of mindfulness are the basis of concentration; the four right kinds of striving are the equipment of concentration; the repetition, development, and cultivation of these same states is the development of concentration therein.”
    BB: The four foundations of mindfulness are the basis of concentration (samādhinimitta) in the sense of being its condition (MA). Here it would seem incorrect to translate nimitta as “sign,” in the sense of either distinctive mark or object. The four right kinds of striving are explained at MN 77.16.
Another translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.044.than.html

MN iii 112. MN 122, p 973.
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10. “Then that bhikkhu should steady his mind internally, quiet it, bring it to singleness, and concentrate it on that same sign of concentration as before. [1154] Then he gives attention to voidness internally. While he is giving attention to voidness internally, his mind enters into voidness internally and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision. When that is so, he understands thus: ‘While I am giving attention to voidness internally, my mind enters into voidness internally and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.
    [1154] MA: This refers to the jhāna that was used as the basis for insight. If, after emerging from the basic jhāna, his mind does not enter into voidness through insight contemplation on his own aggregates or those of others, and he also cannot attain the imperturbable immaterial attainment, he should return to the same basic jhāna that he originally developed and attend to it again and again.
Another translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.122.than.html

AN i 115. AN 3.19, p 213-214
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“So too, possessing three factors, a bhikkhu is capable of achieving a wholesome state not yet attained and of increasing a wholesome state already attained. What three? Here, a bhikkhu diligently applies himself to an object of concentration in the morning, in the middle of the day, and in the evening. Possessing these three factors, a bhikkhu is capable of achieving a wholesome state not yet attained and of increasing a wholesome state already attained.

AN i 256. AN 3.102, p 338.
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Bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is devoted to the higher mind, from time to time he should give attention to three marks.[566] (1) From time to time he should give attention to the mark of concentration, (2) from time to time to the mark of exertion, and (3) from time to time to the mark of equanimity.
    [566] nimittāni. Mp glosses as “three causes” (tīṇi kāraṇāni). The three nimittas are samādhinimitta, paggahanimitta, and upekkhānimitta.
Alternative translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.100.11-15.than.html

AN ii 17. AN 4.14, p 403.
 
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(4) “And what is striving by protection? Here, a bhikkhu protects an arisen excellent object of concentration:[642] the perception of a skeleton, the perception of a worm-infested corpse, the perception of a livid corpse, the perception of a festering corpse, the perception of a fissured corpse, the perception of a bloated corpse. This is called striving by
    [642] samādhinimittaṃ. The six mentioned here are included among the ten asubha meditation subjects in Vism chap. 6.
Alternative translation: http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/4Anguttara-Nikaya/Anguttara2/4-catukkanipata/002-caravaggo-e.html

4. Samvarasutta:  Restraint.

AN iii 23. AN 5.26, p 646
 
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(5) “Again, neither the Teacher nor a fellow monk in the position of a
teaches the Dhamma to a bhikkhu, nor does he teach the Dhamma to others in detail as he has heard it and learned it, nor does he recite the Dhamma in detail as he has heard it and learned it, nor does he ponder, examine, and mentally inspect the Dhamma as he has heard it and learned it, but he has grasped well a certain object of concentration, attended to it well, sustained it well, and penetrated it well with wisdom. In whatever way the bhikkhu has grasped well a certain object of concentration, attended to it well, sustained it well, and penetrated it well with wisdom, in just that way, in relation to that Dhamma, he experiences inspiration in the meaning and inspiration in the Dhamma.

AN iii 321. AN 6.28, p 888-889
 
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When he had spoken, another bhikkhu told him: “Friend, that isn’t the proper occasion for going to see an esteemed bhikkhu. [321] In the evening, when an esteemed bhikkhu has emerged from seclusion and is sitting in the shade of his dwelling with his legs crossed, holding his body straight, having established mindfulness before him, the object of concentration that he attended to during the day is still present to him.
    Mp: “On that occasion when he is sitting in his daytime dwelling it occurs in his mind door.

Sign of the mind (cittanimitta).

SN v 151. SN 47.8, p 1635
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“So too, bhikkhus, here some wise, competent, skilful bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. While he dwells contemplating the body in the body, his mind becomes concentrated, his corruptions  are abandoned, he picks up that sign. He dwells contemplating feelings in feelings … mind in mind … phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. While he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena, his mind becomes concentrated, his corruptions are abandoned, he picks up that sign.
Alternative translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn47/sn47.008.than.html

AN iii 423. AN 6.68, p 969
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“Bhikkhus, (1) it is possible that a bhikkhu who does not delight in company, who is not delighted with company, who is not devoted to delight in company; who does not delight in a group, who is not delighted with a group, who is not devoted to delight in a group, will find delight in solitude when he is alone. (2) It is possible that one who finds delight in solitude when he is alone will acquire the object of the mind. (3) It is possible that one who acquires the object of the mind will fulfill right view. (4) It is possible that one who fulfills right view will fulfill right concentration. (5) It is possible that one who fulfills right concentration will abandon the fetters. (6) Having abandoned the fetters, it is possible that one will realize nibbāna.

Thag. 85
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/thag/thag.01.00x.than.html#passage-85

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Adept in a theme for the mind,
sensing the savor of solitude,
practicing jhana,
masterful, mindful,
you'd attain a pleasure
not of the flesh.

None of these cases refer specifically to "light" nimittas used by Vens Brahm, Pa Auk, and others.  I am aware that there are some references to "light" in the suttas, but I'm afraid I've run out of steam here. Perhaps someone has something to add?

^-^
Mike
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