Перевод "nimitta" credit

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Перевод "nimitta"
« : 21:49 03 Февраля 2007 »

Титтхия сутта (http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.068.than.html)

 “‘Ko panāvuso, hetu ko paccayo yena anuppanno vā rāgo uppajjati uppanno vā rāgo bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṃvattatī’ti? ‘Subhanimittantissa vacanīyaṃ. Tassa subhanimittaṃ ayoniso manasi karoto anuppanno vā rāgo uppajjati uppanno vā rāgo bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṃvattati. Ayaṃ kho, āvuso, hetu ayaṃ paccayo yena anuppanno vā rāgo uppajjati uppanno vā rāgo bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṃvattatī’”ti.

  “‘Ko panāvuso, hetu ko paccayo yena anuppanno vā doso uppajjati uppanno vā doso bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṃvattatī’ti? ‘Paṭighanimittaṃ tissa vacanīyaṃ. Tassa paṭighanimittaṃ ayoniso manasi karoto anuppanno vā doso uppajjati uppanno vā doso bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṃvattati. Ayaṃ kho, āvuso, hetu ayaṃ paccayo yena anuppanno vā doso uppajjati uppanno vā doso bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṃvattatī’”ti.

  “‘Ko panāvuso, hetu ko paccayo yena anuppanno vā moho uppajjati uppanno vā moho bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṃvattatī’ti? ‘Ayoniso manasikāro tissa vacanīyaṃ. Tassa ayoniso manasi karoto anuppanno vā moho uppajjati uppanno vā moho bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṃvattati. Ayaṃ kho, āvuso, hetu ayaṃ paccayo yena anuppanno vā moho uppajjati uppanno vā moho bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya saṃvattatī’”ti.

  “‘Ko panāvuso, hetu ko paccayo yena anuppanno ceva rāgo nuppajjati uppanno ca rāgo pahīyatī’ti?  ‘Asubhanimittantissa  vacanīyaṃ.  Tassa  asubhanimittaṃ  yoniso  manasi  karoto anuppanno ceva rāgo nuppajjati uppanno ca rāgo pahīyati. Ayaṃ kho, āvuso, hetu ayaṃ paccayo yena anuppanno ceva rāgo nuppajjati uppanno ca rāgo pahīyatī’”ti.

  “‘Ko panāvuso, hetu ko paccayo yena anuppanno ceva doso nuppajjati uppanno ca doso pahīyatī’ti? ‘Mettā cetovimuttī tissa vacanīyaṃ. Tassa mettaṃ cetovimuttiṃ yoniso manasi karoto anuppanno ceva doso nuppajjati uppanno ca doso pahīyati. Ayaṃ kho, āvuso, hetu ayaṃ paccayo yena anuppanno ceva doso nuppajjati uppanno ca doso pahīyatī’”ti.

  “‘Ko panāvuso, hetu ko paccayo yena anuppanno ceva moho nuppajjati uppanno ca moho pahīyatī’ti? ‘Yonisomanasikāro tissa vacanīyaṃ. Tassa yoniso manasi karoto anuppanno ceva moho nuppajjati uppanno ca moho pahīyati. Ayaṃ kho, āvuso, hetu ayaṃ paccayo yena anuppanno vā moho nuppajjati uppanno ca moho pahīyatī’”ti.
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #1 : 15:10 08 Января 2008 »

И словарь пали даёт соответствующие варианты перевода, напрмер: outward appearance, mark, characteristic, attribute, phenomenon (opp. essence) И санскритский тоже, например:  (in phil.) instrumental or efficient cause  , the operative or material cause) .

Слово "нимитта" в пали имеет несколько значений,

1) представление (перцептивный образ) сосредоточения на определенной опоре, с помощью которого можно повторно входить в данный вид сосредоточения; настройка на определенное представление (например, красоты subhanimitta) 2) представление, внешний вид, впечатление 3) предзнаменование, знамение 4) знак, обозначение 5) цель, мишень 6) причина

Значения 2-6 прописаны в словарях. Но там нет значения слова "нимитта" как "представления (перцептивного образа)".
« Последнее редактирование: 23:48 03 Сентября 2015 от Ассаджи »
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #2 : 10:43 11 Марта 2008 »

По поводу представлений предметов шести дверей чувств в Уддеса-вибханга сутте (МН 138):

"How is consciousness said to be scattered & diffused? There is the case where a form is seen with the eye, and consciousness follows the drift of (lit.: 'flows after') the theme of the form, is tied to the attraction of the theme of the form, is chained to the attraction of the theme of the form, is fettered & joined to the attraction of the theme of the form: Consciousness is said to be externally scattered & diffused.

"There is the case where a sound is heard with the ear... an aroma is smelled with the nose... a flavor is tasted with the tongue... a tactile sensation is felt with the body... an idea is cognized with the intellect, and consciousness follows the drift of the theme of the idea, is tied to the attraction of the theme of the idea, is chained to the attraction of the theme of the idea, is fettered & joined to the attraction of the theme of the idea: Consciousness is said to be externally scattered & diffused.

"And how is consciousness said not to be externally scattered & diffused? There is the case where a form is seen with the eye, and consciousness does not follow the drift of the theme of the form, is not tied to... chained to... fettered, or joined to the attraction of the theme of the form: Consciousness is said not to be externally scattered & diffused.

"There is the case where a sound is heard with the ear... an aroma is smelled with the nose... a flavor is tasted with the tongue... a tactile sensation is felt with the body... an idea is cognized with the intellect, and consciousness does not follow the drift of the theme of the idea, is not tied to... chained to... fettered, or joined to the attraction of the theme of the idea: Consciousness is said not to be externally scattered & diffused.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.138.than.html

316. ‘‘Kathañcāvuso, bahiddhā viññāṇaṃ vikkhittaṃ visaṭanti vuccati? Idhāvuso, bhikkhuno cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā rūpanimittānusāri viññāṇaṃ hoti rūpanimittassādagadhitaṃ […gathitaṃ (sī. pī.)] rūpanimittassādavinibandhaṃ […vinibandhaṃ (sī. pī.)] rūpanimittassādasaṃyojanasaṃyuttaṃ bahiddhā viññāṇaṃ vikkhittaṃ visaṭanti vuccati. Sotena saddaṃ sutvā…pe… ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā… jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā… kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya dhammanimittānusārī viññāṇaṃ hoti; dhammanimittassādagadhitaṃ dhammanimittassādavinibandhaṃ dhammanimittassādasaṃyojanasaṃyuttaṃ bahiddhā viññāṇaṃ vikkhittaṃ visaṭanti vuccati. Evaṃ kho āvuso, bahiddhā viññāṇaṃ vikkhittaṃ visaṭanti vuccati.

317. ‘‘Kathañcāvuso, bahiddhā viññāṇaṃ avikkhittaṃ avisaṭanti vuccati? Idhāvuso, bhikkhuno cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā na rūpanimittānusāri viññāṇaṃ hoti rūpanimittassādagadhitaṃ na rūpanimittassādavinibandhaṃ na rūpanimittassādasaṃyojanasaṃyuttaṃ bahiddhā viññāṇaṃ avikkhittaṃ avisaṭanti vuccati. Sotena saddaṃ sutvā…pe… ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā… jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā… kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya na dhammanimittānusārī viññāṇaṃ hoti na dhammanimittassādagadhitaṃ na dhammanimittassādavinibandhaṃ na dhammanimittassādasaṃyojanasaṃyuttaṃ bahiddhā viññāṇaṃ avikkhittaṃ avisaṭanti vuccati. Evaṃ kho, āvuso, bahiddhā viññāṇaṃ avikkhittaṃ avisaṭanti vuccati.
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #3 : 20:16 07 Октября 2008 »

Вот интересное эссе, посвященное анализу нимитты и то, как это понятие видоизменялось с патисамбида-магги в вимуттимаггу и далее в висуддхимаггу.

http://www.buddhanet.net/budsas/ebud/ebmed058.htm
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #4 : 10:53 08 Октября 2008 »

Английская тема по термину "нимитта":

http://www.dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?f=23&t=2770

"Нимитта" в контексте охраны дверей чувств (первого из "четырех совершенных усилий"):

http://dhamma.ru/forum/index.php/topic,433.0.html
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #5 : 19:28 18 Октября 2008 »

Еще роль нимитты в джхане описывается в суттах:

"И далее, монах хорошо овладевает своей настройкой (нимитта) созерцания, хорошо следит за ней, хорошо созерцает ее, хорошо настраивает ее (хорошо постигает ее) с помощью распознавания (паннья).

Точно так же как один человек созерцает другого, или стоящий человек созерцает сидящего, или сидящий созерцает лежащего; так, монахи, и монах хорошо овладевает своей настройкой (нимитта) созерцания, хорошо следит за ней, хорошо созерцает ее, хорошо настраивает ее (хорошо постигает ее) с помощью распознавания (паннья). Это пятый способ развития пятифакторного благородного правильного сосредоточения."

http://dhamma.ru/canon/an5-28.htm

"Now suppose that there is a wise, experienced, skillful cook who has presented a king or a king's minister with various kinds of curry: mainly sour, mainly bitter, mainly peppery, mainly sweet, alkaline or non-alkaline, salty or non-salty. He takes note of his master, thinking, 'Today my master likes this curry, or he reaches out for that curry, or he takes a lot of this curry or he praises that curry. Today my master likes mainly sour curry... Today my master likes mainly bitter curry... mainly peppery curry... mainly sweet curry... alkaline curry... non-alkaline curry... salty curry... Today my master likes non-salty curry, or he reaches out for non-salty curry, or he takes a lot of non-salty curry, or he praises non-salty curry.' As a result, he is rewarded with clothing, wages, & gifts. Why is that? Because the wise, experienced, skillful cook picks up on the theme [nimitta] of his own master.

"In the same way, there are cases where a wise, experienced, skillful monk remains focused on the body in & of itself... feelings in & of themselves... the mind in & of itself... mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. As he remains thus focused on mental qualities in & of themselves, his mind becomes concentrated, his defilements are abandoned. He takes note of that fact. As a result, he is rewarded with a pleasant abiding here & now, together with mindfulness & alertness. Why is that? Because the wise, experienced, skillful monk picks up on the theme of his own mind."

("Pleasant abiding", то есть "приятное пребывание" - джхана)

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn47/sn47.008.than.html

Ven. Anuruddha: It has happened that, as we were remaining heedful, ardent, & resolute, we perceived light & the vision of forms. But soon after that the light disappeared, together with the vision of forms, and we can't become attuned to that theme [nimitta].

The Buddha: You should become attuned to that theme [nimitta].

...

'I have abandoned those defilements of the mind. Let me develop concentration in three ways.' So [1] I developed concentration with directed thoughts & evaluations. I developed concentration without directed thought but with a modicum of evaluation. I developed concentration without directed thought or evaluation. [2] I developed concentration with rapture... without rapture... [3] I developed concentration accompanied by enjoyment... accompanied by equanimity.

When my concentration with directed thoughts & evaluations was developed, when my concentration without directed thought but with a modicum of evaluation... without directed thought or evaluation... with rapture... without rapture... accompanied by enjoyment... accompanied by equanimity was developed, then the knowledge & vision arose in me: 'My release is unprovoked. This is my last birth. There is no further becoming.'

Упаккилеса сутта (МН 128)

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/wings/part3.html#passage-161



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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #6 : 13:42 07 Февраля 2009 »

Руперт Гетин в книге "Основы буддизма" пишет о санскритском аналоге этого термина, "пратибимба".

"In effect, Upatissa and Buddhaghosa give an account in terms of three successive mental images or 'signs' (nimitta) and five stages of joy (pīti), while Asaṅga and Vasubandhu, the fathers of Yogācāra tradition of Mahāyāna thought, detail nine stages of the settling of the mind (citta-sthiti), although they tō make reference to the mental images (pratibimba) seen in meditation"

https://books.google.com/books?id=al_Wlh2mwWIC&pg=PT214&lpg=PT214

Он употребляется в "Шравака-бхуми" Асанги:

Цитировать
The cultivation of Calm (`samatha-bhaavanaa) aims at perfect steadiness of the reflected image (pratibimba) in thought (citta) of the meditative object (aalambana). Success is constituted by the ninth (and last) thought-fixation (citta-sthiti) which is the only mental orientation driving without effort (anaabhogavaahana-manaskaara), due to previous, but no longer required, eliminative activation (prahaa.na-sa^mskaara), i.e., activations eliminative of meditative faults in the first eight thought-fixations. Thus, the ninth thought-fixation is carried by habituation (svarasavaahita) accomplished in the eighth thought-fixation, which still had effort. This is equivalent to the svarasika ("purely passive") of Stcherbatsky in this passage:

It [the unexpressible reality] is the pure object, the object cognized by the senses in a pure sensation, that is to say, in a sensation which is purely passive, which is different in kind from the spontaneity of the intellect.

The meditative object of Calm alone is called Reflected image devoid of discernment (nirvikalpa-pratibimba); that of Higher Vision alone is called Reflected image attended with discernment (savikalpa-pratibimba). The meditative object of combined Calm and Higher Vision (`samatha-vipa`syanaayuganaddha) is called Fulfillment of the requirement (kaarya-parini.spatti).

http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/alex6.htm
"Pratibimba" истолковывается как "reflected image", "cognitive projection", "imaged-cognitive content"

http://www.acmuller.net/yogacara/articles/intro-uni.htm
http://www.acmuller.net/yoga-sem/interdisciplinary/kachru-2002.html

что близко к "представлению" ("перцептивному образу").
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #7 : 13:44 07 Февраля 2009 »

Камалашила в "Бхаванакраме" цитирует Сандхинирмочана сутру Асанги:

The phenomenon that has been contemplated as the object of inner single-pointed concentration should be analyzed and regarded as like a reflection. This reflection or image, which is the object of single-pointed concentration, should be thoroughly discerned as an object of knowledge. It should be completely investigated and thoroughly examined. Practice patience and take delight in it. With proper analysis, observe and understand it. This is what is known as special insight.

http://www.empty-universe.com/yogacara/bhavanakrama_two.htm
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #8 : 13:58 07 Февраля 2009 »

Такая же терминология встречается в "Йога-бхашья" Вьясы, авторитетном комментарии к "Йога-сутре" Патанджали:

YB (B4.23,198) manas+ hi mantavya3 artha3 uparaktam, tatsvayam ca viSayatvaad viSayin3 puruSa3 aatmiiyaa3 vRtti3 abhisambaddham, tad etac cittam eva draSTRdRzya-uparaktam viSayaviSayinirbhaasam cetanaacetanasv aruupaapannam viSayaatmakam apy aviSayaatmakam ivaacetanam cetanam iva sphaTikamaNikalpam sa rvaartham ity ucyate.
YB (B4.23,198) tad anena cittasaaruupya3 bh raantaah kecit tad eva cetanam ity aahuh a pare cittamaatram eva + idam sarvam naasti khalv ayam gavaadir ghaTaadhiz ca sakaaraNa1 loka iti.
YB (B4.23,198) anupampaniiyaas te kasmaat, asti hi teSaam bhraantibiijam sarvaruupaakaar anirbhaasam cittam iti.
YB (B4.23,198) samaadhiprajnaayaam prajneya1 arthah pratibimbiibhuutas [pratibimba] tasyaalambaniibhuutatvaad [aalambana] anyah.
YB (B4.23,199) sa ced arthaz cittamaatram syaat katham prajnaa3 eva prajnaaruupam avadh aaryeta tasmaat pratibimbiibhuuta1 [pratibimba] arthah prajnaayaam yenaavadhaaryate sa puruS a iti.

YB (B4.23,199) evam grahiitRgrahaNagraahyasva ruupacittabhedaat trayam apy etaj jaatitah pr avibhajante te samyagdarzinas tair adhigatah puruSah.

У Вьясы "pratibimba" - образ, отражение, служащее опорой (aalambana, пали aaramma.na) сосредоточения.

23. сознание, окрашенное Зрителем и тем, что воспринимается, [становится] всеобъектным.

Интеллект окрашен познаваемым объектом, но и сам в силу свойства быть объектом восприятия оказывается связанным через эту свою функцию с субъектом, то есть Пурушей. Таким образом, то же самое сознание, будучи "окрашено" Зрителем и тем, что воспринимается, проявляется [одновременно] и как объект, и как субъект. Обретая внутреннюю форму одушевленного и неодушевленного и проявляясь как если бы оно не было объектом, хотя по своей природе оно есть объект, или как если бы оно было одушевленным, хотя [в действительности оно] неодушевленное, [это сознание], [отражающее все вокруг], подобно кристаллу, называется всеобъектным 1.

Поэтому некоторые, введенные в заблуждение таким сходством сознания [с Пурушей], говорят, что именно оно и является одушевленным. Другие же утверждают, что весь этот [мир] есть не что иное, как сознание 2, и что в действительности коровы, горшки и прочее, то есть [предметный] мир вместе с его причинами, не существуют. Поистине, [эти люди] достойны жалости.

— Почему?

— Потому что сознание, озаряющее формы всех чувственных объектов, и есть семя их заблуждения.

Что касается [различающего] постижения, [которое возникает] при йогическом сосредоточении, то постигаемый объект, будучи отраженным [в сознании] 3, есть иное, [нежели сознание], поскольку служит его опорой. Если бы этот объект был "только-сознанием", то каким образом самопостижение могло бы установить себя в форме постижения? Следовательно, тот, кто определяет объект, отраженный при [йогическом] постижении, есть Пуруша.

— Почему это [происходит]?

24. Это [сознание], хотя и расцвеченное бесчисленными впечатлениями, [существует] для Другого, поскольку оно выполняет соединяющую функцию.

http://psylib.org.ua/books/patanja/ostru/txt08.htm

23.1. В санскритском тексте sarvartham, т.е. "[направленное] на все объекты".

23.2. Здесь Вьяса вновь ссылается на центральную концепцию виджнянавады "chittamatra" (только-сознание).

23.3. В санскритском тексте pratibimbibhuta. Здесь слово pratibimba (образ, или отражение) употребляется в своем лексическом смысле, поскольку в данном контексте не имеется в виду противопоставление по типу pratibimba – avaccheda, свойственное гносеологическим построениям в веданте. О pratibimba-vada (теории отражения) см. (Dasgupta, 1961-1963, vol. I, с. 475-476].

http://psylib.org.ua/books/patanja/ostru/txt12.htm
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #9 : 10:57 16 Мая 2009 »

Словарная статья Бхиккху Аналайо об этом термине:

http://www.buddhismuskunde.uni-hamburg.de/fileadmin/pdf/analayo/Nimitta.pdf
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #10 : 09:40 13 Июля 2009 »

По Махаведалла сутте, страсть, отвращение и заблуждение создают представления (перцептивные образы).
По комментарию Бхиккху Бодхи и Аттхакатхе это представления о постоянстве, приятности, личной принадлежности и привлекательности.

"Passion is a making of themes. Aversion is a making of themes. Delusion is a making of themes. In a monk whose fermentations are ended, these have been abandoned, their root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. Now, to the extent that there is theme-less awareness-release, the unprovoked awareness-release is declared the foremost. And this unprovoked awareness-release is empty of passion, empty of aversion, empty of delusion.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.043.than.html

MN 43. "Lust is a maker of signs, hate is a maker of signs, delusion is a maker of signs."

BB's note: "MA interprets the phrase 'maker of signs' (nimitta-karana) to mean that lust, hate and delusion brand a person as a worldling or a noble one, as lustful, hating or deluded. But it may also mean that these defilements cause the mind to ascribe a false significance to things as being permanent, pleasurable, self, or beautiful."

Tattha vipassanā niccanimittaṃ sukhanimittaṃ attanimittaṃ ugghāṭetīti animittā nāma. Cattāro āruppā rūpanimittassa abhāvena animittā nāma. Maggaphalāni nimittakaraṇānaṃ kilesānaṃ abhāvena animittāni.

Pathikavagga-atthakattha 2.355
Salayatanavagga-Atthakatha 3.99
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #11 : 18:00 05 Октября 2009 »

Likewise, “paying attention to (manasikaroto) the agreeable sign (nimitta)” in the first six verses in sutta 95 of the Salayatana Samyutta is probably meant to criticize sanna operating in an unwholesome way when one per­ceives through the six senses. In contrast, the last six verses recommend being mindful with regard to incoming sensory data. This is parallel to some verses in the Vangisathera Samyutta: “Your mind is on fire due to the perversion of sanna. You should avoid the beautiful sign (subham nimittam) which is provocative of lust…You should have kayagata sati …”Skilling (1997: 480) points out that samjna (sanna in Pali) is connected with nimitta in most definitions. Here subham nimittam is related to the perversion of sanna, and kayagata sati is apparently prescribed as a remedy for the perversion of sanna.

http://dharmadana.wordpress.com/2009/03/23/ch-1/

How does sati relate to the restraint of the senses? The answer lies in its function of steering sanna in the cognitive process. Our daily activities involve contact between the six senses and their corresponding objects. To put it in a figurative way, sati as the gatekeeper prevents unwholesome cog­nition of objects and any ensuing troubles from entering the individual through the sense-doors, and only admits proper cognition of the objects. Such un­wholesome cognition of objects is implied in the formula on the restraint of the senses quoted above: “grasping at its signs and details” (nimittaggahi hoti anubyanjanaggahi), which is the function of sanna, and sati can rectify the unwholesome functioning of sanna. As discussed in Chapter 1, in the Vangisathera Samyutta, the beautiful sign (subham nimittam) is related to perversion of sanna, and kayagata sati is apparently prescribed here as a re­medy for the perversion of sanna. This function of sati is to avoid forming any sanna that may lead to evil unwholesome states of covetousness and dejection. This is how the senses are restrained.

http://dharmadana.wordpress.com/2009/03/23/ch-2/



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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #12 : 18:08 05 Октября 2009 »

2.2.1 Sati and nimitta of the jhanas

As mentioned above, the four satipatthanas are called “the nimittas of con­centration (samadhi)” in the Culavedalla Sutta. In the Sangiti Sutta (DN III 226), samadhi-nimitta is illustrated by a list of terms: atthika-sanna (contemplation38 of a skeleton), pulavaka-sanna (contemplation of a worm[-infested corpse]), vinClaka-sanna (contemplation of a livid [corpse]), vicchiddaka-sanna (contemplation of [a corpse] full of holes), and uddhumataka-sanna (contemplation of a bloated [corpse]). Contemplation of a corpse in different stages of decomposition is included in the Satipatthana Sutta, a text devoted to mindfulness. Even some of the above terms, namely atthika, vinClaka and uddhumataka, occur in this text. As discussed in Chapter 2, such contemplation belongs to a function of mindfulness, that is, deliberately forming conceptions (sanna). Therefore the foregoing sannas refer to the practice of sati, and thus this passage in the SangCti Sutta implies that mindfulness is the nimitta of concentration.

Here nimitta can be interpreted as “sign” or “object” since the object of mindfulness is also the object of concentration. Alternatively, it can be interpreted as “cause.” As the commentary glosses, through these sannas one can achieve samadhi.39 This means that these contemplations serve as the causes or basis of concentration. A verse in the Visuddhimagga says that the ten asubhas, which refer to contemplations on a corpse in different stages of decom­position, are called “causes of this and that jhana” by the Buddha.40 It should be noted that the Visuddhimagga holds that this practice can only lead to the attainment of the first jhana, not the second and the rest.41 This idea might be based on the Abhidhamma as the Dhammasangani (§§ 263-264) only men­tions the first jhana in its exposition of asubhajhana, which refers to the ten asubhas.

Sutta 8 of the Satipatthana Samyutta states that while a foolish monk is contemplating the body as a body (feelings, mind, dhammas), his mind does not become concentrated, his defilements (upakkilesa) are not abandoned, he does not grasp that sign (nimitta), and thus he gains neither pleasant dwellings in this very life nor mindfulness and full awareness because he does not grasp the sign of his own mind. A wise monk is the opposite and gains pleasant dwellings in this very life and mindfulness and full awareness because he grasps the sign of his own mind.42 Since “pleasant dwellings in this very life” refer to the four jhanas,43 the foregoing implies that the prac­tice of the four satipatthanas may lead to the attainment of the jhanas. Thus “mindfulness and full awareness” here must also refer to the mindful state present in the jhanas rather than mindfulness and full awareness as a pre­liminary to the jhanas. The key to the attainment of the jhanas is to grasp the sign of one’s own mind. What does “grasping the sign of one’s own mind” mean? This seems to be puzzling, and the sutta itself gives no explanation. An account in the Upakkilesa Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya may shed some light on this problem.

In this text the Buddha asks Anuruddha whether he and his fellow monks have attained a comfortable dwelling which is a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones and beyond human states. In the Culagosinga Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya, also in the context of a dialogue between the Buddha and Anuruddha, the term “comfortable dwelling which is a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones and bey­ond human states” (uttarim manussadhamma alamariyananadassanaviseso phasuviharo) refers to any of the nine meditative attainments from the first jhana to the cessation of apperception and feeling.44 In the Upakkilesa Sutta, however, the comfortable dwelling characterized by conceiving the radiance and the vision of forms (rupa) can only apply to the four jhanas since the meditative attainments higher than the jhanas surmount conceptions of forms (rupasanna) according to the Nikayas.

In reply to the Buddha’s foregoing question, Anuruddha says, “We con­ceive (sanjanama) radiance and a vision of forms. But soon afterwards the radiance and the vision of forms disappear, and we do not master that nimitta.”45 The word nimitta can mean either cause or sign. Choosing the former meaning, Ven. Nanamoli and Ven. Bodhi (1995: 1012) translate: “Soon afterwards the light and the vision of forms disappear, but we have not discovered the cause for that (tan ca nimittam na pativijjhama).” However, the Chinese translation of this text in the Madhyama Fgama renders nimitta as “sign.” No words equivalent to tan ca nimittam na pativijjhama are found in the Chinese counterpart, but a similar expression is attributed to the Buddha: “You (plural) do not master this sign.”46 Moreover, in the later part of this text recur these two terms: rupa-nimitta (”the sign of forms”) and obhasa-nimitta (”the sign of radiance”).47 Accordingly, nimitta here must mean the “sign,” which refers to the radiance and the vision of forms as objects of concentration.

Following Anuruddha’s reply, the Buddha says that before he was enlightened, he also had the same experience. He realized that when mental defilements (cittassa upakkilesa) such as doubt, etc. arose in him, his con­centration fell away, and when concentration fell away, the radiance and the vision of forms disappeared.48 This description is strikingly analogous to the foregoing statement in sutta 8 of the Satipatthana Samyutta: His mind does not become concentrated, his defilements (upakkilesa) are not abandoned, he does not grasp that sign. Both cases imply that concentration, the abandoning of defilements, and grasping the sign (or conceiving the radi­ance and the vision of forms) are synchronic or interdependent in some way.

Mastering the sign, or the radiance and the vision of forms, is crucial to attaining a “comfortable dwelling,” which refers to the four jhanas in the Upakkilesa Sutta. This amounts to the foregoing that grasping the sign of one’s own mind is essential for gaining “pleasant dwellings in this very life,” i.e. the four jhanas.

In sutta 8 the method employed to achieve the four jhanas is the four satipatthanas. As Takei (1983: 162) indicates, in the four Nikayas and the four Agamas, as far as the prose is concerned, there are more than forty suttas in which Anuruddha preaches or carries on a dialogue; in over eighty per cent of them he either practices the four satipatthanas himself or encour­ages others to practice them.49 Since Anuruddha is so devoted to the prac­tice of the four satipatthanas, it can be inferred that in the Upakkilesa Sutta it is also by means of the four satipatthanas that he reaches the meditative attainments called “comfortable dwellings.” In addition, in suttas 12, 13, 14, 22, 23 and 24 of the Anuruddha Samyutta (SN V 303-306), Anuruddha claims that it is through the cultivation of the four satipatthanas that he acquires the three gnoses (vijja) and three other achievements, which constitute the well-known six supernormal knowledges (abhinna) as found in the Nikayas.50 Since the acquisition of these special faculties is based on the attainment of the fourth jhana according to the Nikayas,51 it is very likely that Anuruddha’s cultivation of the four satipatthanas conduces to the jhanas.

The “sign” (nimitta) in the above two texts could be what later Buddhist literature calls “counterpart sign.” According to the Visuddhimagga, in the course of meditation leading to jhana, two “signs”52 successively arise as the object of meditation: the “acquired sign” (uggaha-nimitta) and the “counterpart sign” (patibhaga-nimitta). They are described with reference to the earth kasina, meditation on a disc made of earth, in the Visuddhimagga (pp. 125 -126). Gethin (1998: 183) interprets the text: “Whereas the acquired sign is a mental visualization of the physical object exactly as it appears- an eidetic image-the counterpart sign is a purified conceptual image free of any marks or blemishes.”

Although the term “counterpart sign” is not found in early Buddhist texts, the concept might have existed in very early times and seems to fit in quite well with the contexts of the Upakkilesa Sutta and of sutta 8 in the Satipatthana Samyutta discussed above. Cousins (1973: 119) says that the most striking evidence for the antiquity of this concept is to be found in the Upakkilesa Sutta. I shall elucidate this point. In this text the “sign,” which refers to the radiance and the vision of forms, could be a precursor of the counterpart sign. We can find some analogy between the passage in sutta 8 and the following passage in the Visuddhimagga:

When he is doing so, gradually the hindrances withdraw, the defilements subside, the mind becomes concentrated with access concentration, and the counterpart sign arises.53

In this passage, “the defilements subside, the mind becomes concentrated with access concentration, and the counterpart sign arises” corresponds to “his mind becomes concentrated, his defilements are abandoned, he grasps that sign” in the case of a wise monk stated in sutta 8. Therefore “grasping that sign” may mean grasping the counterpart sign. The arising of the counter­part sign is crucial to the attainment of the jhanas because it characterizes access concentration and also absorption (appana),54 i.e. the jhana proper. According to the Visuddhimagga the counterpart sign is born of sanna, and is not to be cognized by the eye.55 Anuruddha’s reply that “We conceive (sanjanama) radiance and a vision of forms” cited above also implies that this sign is born of sanna (derived from samjna as sanjanama). This sug­gests that such an object is purely created in one’s own mind without being connected to the external object that was originally taken as a meditation subject. In other words, it cannot be an “acquired sign.” This state of con­sciousness is freed from its normal preoccupation with the objects of the five senses.56 Accordingly we may interpret the passage in question thus: When a wise monk is contemplating the body as a body (or feelings, etc.), if he grasps a meditation object that is formed by conception (sanna) in his own mind and transcending the original object outside his mind, he breaks the bondage to the objects of the five senses, and thereby escapes from “the sphere of sensual desire” (kamadhatu) to “the sphere of form” (rupadhatu), i.e. the jhanas.

...

This statement asserts that “calming the bodily formation” means “stopping in-breaths and out-breaths,” and that one can still practice mindfulness of breathing even when breathing has stopped since one can still contemplate the sign of breathing taken from one’s past experience. In the paragraph of clarification, the expression “the sign…is well attended to” (… nimittam sumanasikatatta) is reminiscent of sanna as discussed in Chapter 1 (Section 2.2). In this context, the functioning of sati consists in forming sanna of breath­ing, which is an accurate and subtle identification of the experience. At first sanna functions in the sense of apperception, which is dependent on the co-temporal input of sensory data of tangible objects, the in-breaths and out-breaths. Afterwards, even when breathing has ceased in the fourth jhana, this sanna of breathing can be recalled and serves as a meditation object. This is recollection, which is also a definition of sati as discussed in Chapter 1 (Section 1). Put differently, in this case the practitioner forms sanna of breathing, which is in the sense of conception as it has nothing to do with co-temporal sen­sory data.

http://dharmadana.wordpress.com/2009/03/23/ch-3/
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #13 : 17:13 27 Августа 2011 »

Общее обсуждение этого понятия - в теме:

http://dhamma.ru/forum/index.php/topic,434.0.html

В новом пали-английском словаре Маргарет Коун определение более точное:

nimitta, m.n. [cf S., BHS nimitta], a sign, a mark; what one notes or marks;

1. (i) a sign or mark by which something or someone is recognized or identified or known or defined; a distinguishing mark or appearance; a perceived (enduring) attribute, predicate (especially that of permanence); an attribution;

(ii) the organ of generation (of either sex), the pudenda;

2. an object or appearance or happening which is significant, which expresses more than itself;

(i) a sign, a significant appearance; an omen, a portent;

(ii) an indication, a hint;

3. (i) what one notes or marks; an object of thought or meditation or concentration; an image;

(ii) an internal appearance or total awareness; a mental impression (appearing as an early stage of jhāna, a sign of progress);

4. a ground, a cause, a reason;



nimittaṃ gaṇhāti,

1. marks, apprehends the characteristic features; apprehends an object or appearance (as distinguished in various ways); distinguishes, identifies an object or appearance;

2. apprehends, responds emotionally to, an object or appearance; grasps, occupies oneself with, external features or characteristics;

3. (+ loc.) marks, marks inwardly; takes as a sign; concentrates exclusively on, is completely taken up by; apprehends only;
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #14 : 17:42 13 Апреля 2012 »

"sabbāva sañjānanalakkhaṇā, tadevetanti puna sañjānanapaccayanimittakaraṇarasā dāruādīsu tacchakādayo viya, yathāgahitanimittavasena abhinivesakaraṇapaccupaṭṭhānā hatthidassakāndhā (udā. 54) viya, yathāupaṭṭhitavisayapadaṭṭhānā tiṇapurisakesu migapotakānaṃ purisāti uppannasaññā viyāti."

"Все [распознавание (сання)] имеет характеристику распознавания (санджанана); её функцией является создание представления (нимитта), который служит предпосылкой последующего распознавания: "Это та же самая вещь" – как плотники и т.п. делают с деревом, и т.д.; её проявлением является порождение уверенности благодаря соответствующим образом уловленному представлению, – как слепой, воспринимающий слона ( Удана 6-4 ); её основой служит любой приблизившийся объект – как распознавание "люди" возникает у молодых животных в отношении пугал."

Висуддхимагга (глава 14 §130)
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #15 : 17:45 13 Апреля 2012 »

"But it has neither colour nor shape; for if it had, it would be cognizable by the eye, gross, susceptible of comprehension and stamped with the three characteristics. But it is not like that. For it is born only of perception in one who has obtained concentration, being a mere mode of appearance."

"Tañca kho pana neva vaṇṇavantaṁ, na saṇṭhānavantaṁ, yadi hi taṁ īdisaṁ bhaveyya, cakkhu-viññeyyaṁ siyā oḷārikam sammasanūpagaṁ tilakkhaṇabbhāhataṁ. Na pan' etaṁ tādisaṁ, kevalam hi samādhi-lābhino upaṭṭhānākāramattaṁ:saññajam etanti".

Висуддхимагга IV.31 (126)
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #16 : 09:55 10 Ноября 2012 »

Мой друг, малознакомый с буддизмом, сказал просто: "представление".
Джеф Шац тоже говорит: "representation".

ПРЕДСТАВЛЕНИЕ
        образ раннее воспринятого предмета или явления (П. памяти, воспоминание), а также образ, созданный продуктивным воображением; форма чувств. отражения в виде нагляднообразного знания. В отличие от восприятия П. поднимается над непо-средств. данностью единичных объектов и связывает их с понятием. П. осуществляется в двух формах — в виде образов памяти и воображения. П. памяти служит необходимым условием процесса познания, в ходе крого сохранившийся образ объекта актуализируется при восприятии. С помощью образов воображения создаются П. и мысленные ситуации, непосредственно не воспринимающиеся в целом в действительности. Если восприятие относится только к налично данному, настоящему, то П. одновременно относится и к настоящему, и к прошлому, и к будущему.
        Являясь формой индивидуального чувств. отражения, П. человека опосредствованы языком, наполнены обществ. содержанием, осмыслены и осознаны.

http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_philosophy/3067/%D0%9F%D0%A0%D0%95%D0%94%D0%A1%D0%A2%D0%90%D0%92%D0%9B%D0%95%D0%9D%D0%98%D0%95
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #17 : 10:55 08 Марта 2013 »

Из фрагментов ранних стоиков

51

Представление - это изменение, происходящее в душе, обнаруживающее в ней и себя самого и то, что его вызвало. Например, когда посредством зрения мы видим белое, тогда то, что происходит в дуще с помощью видения, есть изменение, и на основе этого изменения мы можем сказать, что белое, которое нас возбуждает, существует.

http://philosophy.spbu.ru/userfiles/rusphil/Veche%20%E2%84%961-8.pdf
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #18 : 08:57 12 Марта 2013 »

Интересна последовательность всё более тонких настроек при практике Анапанасати, описанная в Патисамбхидамагге:

Iti kira ‘‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’’ti sikkhati, ‘‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’’ti sikkhati. Evaṃ sante vātūpaladdhiyā ca pabhāvanā hoti, assāsapassāsānañca pabhāvanā hoti, ānāpānassatiyā ca pabhāvanā hoti. Ānāpānassatisamādhissa ca pabhāvanā hoti; tañca naṃ samāpattiṃ paṇḍitā samāpajjantipi vuṭṭhahantipi.

So then he trains thus 'I shall breathe in calming the body fabrication;' he trains thus 'I shall breathe out calming the body fabrication:' that being so, there is production of the experience of wind, and there is production of out-breaths and in-breaths, and there is production of mindfulness of breathing, and there is production of concentration by mindfulness of breathing, and consequently the wise enter into and emerge from that attainment.

Yathā kathaṃ viya? Seyyathāpi kaṃse ākoṭite paṭhamaṃ oḷārikā saddā pavattanti. Oḷārikānaṃ saddānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi oḷārike sadde, atha pacchā sukhumakā saddā pavattanti. Sukhumakānaṃ saddānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi sukhumake sadde, atha pacchā sukhumasaddanimittārammaṇatāpi cittaṃ pavattati.

Like what? Just as when a gong is struck. At first gross sounds occur and [mind occurs] because the sign of the gross sounds is well apprehended, well attended to, well observed; and when the gross sounds have ceased, then afterwards faint sounds occur and [mind occurs] because the sign of the faint sounds is well apprehended, well attended to, well observed; and when the faint sounds have ceased, then afterwards mind occurs because it has the sign of the faint sounds as its object --

Evamevaṃ paṭhamaṃ oḷārikā assāsapassāsā pavattanti; oḷārikānaṃ assāsapassāsānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi oḷārike assāsapassāse, atha pacchā sukhumakā assāsapassāsā pavattanti. Sukhumakānaṃ assāsapassāsānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi sukhumake assāsapassāse, atha pacchā sukhumakaassāsapassāsānaṃ nimittārammaṇatāpi cittaṃ na vikkhepaṃ gacchati.

so too, at first gross in-breaths and out-breaths occur and [mind does not become distracted] because the sign of the gross in­breaths and out-breaths is well apprehended, well attended to, well ob­served; and when the gross in-breaths and out-breaths have ceased, then afterwards faint in-breaths and out-breaths occur and [mind does not become distracted] because the sign of the faint in-breaths and out-breaths is well apprehended, well attended to, well observed; and when the faint in-breaths and out-breaths [are so faint that perception of them] has ceased, then afterwards mind does not become distracted because it has the sign of the faint in-breaths and out-breaths as its object

[i.e. the subtle awareness of the material body which remains when the faint breaths are too faint to be noticed -- this remaining 'sign' being either as small as the nostril area (or upper lip in one breathing through the mouth), or as large as the internal felt-sense of the whole body (indicated previously as being the sign for anchoring mindfulness, and at this level of subtlety represents its full development as the sign of calm abiding)].

Evaṃ sante vātūpaladdhiyā ca pabhāvanā hoti, assāsapassāsānañca pabhāvanā hoti, ānāpānassatiyā ca pabhāvanā hoti, ānāpānassatisamādhissa ca pabhāvanā hoti; tañca naṃ samāpattiṃ paṇḍitā samāpajjantipi vuṭṭhahantipi.

That being so, there is production of the experience of wind, and there is production of in-breaths and out-­breaths, and there is production of mindfulness of breathing, and there is production of concentration by mindfulness of breathing, and conse­quently the wise enter into and emerge from that attainment.


Это напоминает последовательный переход ко все более высоким джханам по Гави сутте, с улавливанием настройки на каждую из них.
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #19 : 13:58 08 Октября 2013 »

Флорин Деляну пишет:

The term has a wide range of meaning, and even in the particular context of meditation, its precise denotation and connotations are not easy to determine. A concise but very useful discussion of its usage in the SrBh and related texts is found in Schmithausen 1982a, p. 63, n. 15a (also containing referrences to relevant modern studies). In its basic usage, nimitta refers to the characteristic(s)/mark(s)/sign(s) (as directly perceived but more often as defined a priori by the Buddhist doctrine) which is/are grasped and internalised through meditation or reflection.This 'characteristic' means, to use Schmithausen's terminology (ibid.), sometimes the actual form in which the meditation object appears to the yogi (Erscheinungsform des Ubungsobjektes) and sometimes the mental image grasped from the representation of this appearance (das in die Vorstellung aufgenommene Bild dieser Erscheinungsform). This mental image can pass through various stages of refinement. The locus classicus explaining them and how they are produced is the Vism (see especially, p.101, §27 - p.104, § 41).

XX. The Chapter on the Mundane Path (Laukikamarga) in the Sravakabhumi: A Trilingual Edition (Sanskrit, Tibetan, Chinese), Annotated Translation, and Introductory Study. Volume II
https://icabs.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=repository_uri&item_id=344
стр. 120
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #20 : 07:06 05 Июня 2014 »

Из словаря Рис-Девидса:

Nimitta: (nt.) ... M I.119 ( = five sorts of mental images); Nd2 659; DhsA 53 ( = ākāra).

Ден Люстхаус пишет:

Another term in this tug of war, one pivotal for this overall argument, is ākāra (Tib. rnam pa; Ch. xiang). As AP (Ālambana-parīkṣā) notes, the opponent tends to treat it as meaning the physical features of the object, such as its shape, size, color (equivalent to saṁsthāna, which means precisely those sort of features), whereas Dignāga (as did other Buddhists) took ākāra to mean "mental image," the image that appears in cognition. For the opponents these tend to be the same thing, since they assume that what appears in cognition is an exact replica of something external, so that all the features appearing in that mental image are precise facsimiles of the actual thing out there.

Dignāga's position is more like Kant's Vorstellungen ("representations") or Husserl's noetic constitution: cognition consists of mental constructions that display already embedded mental imagery for cognition, so that one sees one's own projections (habitual for Husserl and Dignāga) as things out there. Dignāga concludes that the relation, if any, between what one perceives and anything outside of one's cognitive sphere is epistemologically nearly impossible to determine one way or the other.

https://www.academia.edu/7257373/Lu_Chengs_Chinese_Translation_of_the_Tibetan_Version_of_Dignagas_Alambana-parik_a-v_tti_An_English_Translation
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #21 : 11:59 27 Ноября 2014 »

О свободе от представлений в Йогачара-бхуми:

The Ālaya Treatise suggests that the way we usually conceive things is intimately connected to this underlying sense of self:

Mental-cognitive awareness (mano-vijñāna) is said to be based on mentation (manas) because as long as mentation has not ceased then [mental-cognitive awareness] is not freed from the bondage of  perception (vijñapti) in regard to phenomena (nimitta); but if [mentation] has ceased, then [mental-cognitive awareness] will be freed.

As long as this mentation, with its accompanying ignorance, self-view and sense of “I am” persists (“until it is completely destroyed”), then so long will mental cognitive awareness (mano-vijñāna) be bound to cognize phenomena (nimitta) in relation to this sense of self.

...

Serious practitioners will come to “personally realize that they are bound by the external bond of objective phenomena (nimitta-bandhana) and by the internal bonds of spiritual corruption (dauṣṭhulya),” which occurs once they have attained deep understanding of the Four Truths (satyābhisamaya) ...

https://www.scribd.com/doc/82046477/22-Waldron-Alaya-Treatise-of-YogacaraBhumi
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #22 : 10:18 23 Августа 2015 »

Судя по всему, Бхиккху Бодхи использует перевод "sign" в силу устоявшейся традиции английского перевода. Как он пишет в примечании 54 к переводу Бодджханга-самьютты:

The word nimitta is difficult to render in a way that fits all the major contexts where it occurs. I returned to "sign" only after several experiments with alternatives - "aspect", "feature," and "appearance" - proved unsatisfactory.

https://books.google.com/books?id=MEA6AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA1900&lpg=PA1900

То есть он поэкспериментировал с различными вариантами, но в итоге вернулся к подходу его учителя, досточтимого Нянамоли, который каждое палийское слово, независимо от контекста, передавал одним и тем же английским словом, - а для передачи слова "нимитта" досточтимый Нянамоли всегда использовал слово "sign".
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #23 : 00:01 04 Сентября 2015 »

"But it has neither colour nor shape; for if it had, it would be cognizable by the eye, gross, susceptible of comprehension and stamped with the three characteristics. But it is not like that. For it is born only of perception in one who has obtained concentration, being a mere mode of appearance."

"Tañca kho pana neva vaṇṇavantaṁ, na saṇṭhānavantaṁ, yadi hi taṁ īdisaṁ bhaveyya, cakkhu-viññeyyaṁ siyā oḷārikam sammasanūpagaṁ tilakkhaṇabbhāhataṁ. Na pan' etaṁ tādisaṁ, kevalam hi samādhi-lābhino upaṭṭhānākāramattaṁ:saññajam etanti".

Висуддхимагга IV.31 (126)

Здесь в Висуддхимагге, по-видимому, позаимствована фраза из Вимуттимагги:

"To the yogin who attends to the incoming breath with mind that is cleansed of the nine lesser defilements the image arises with a pleasant feeling similar to that which is produced in the action of spinning cotton or silk cotton. Also, it is likened to the pleasant feeling produced by a breeze. Thus in breathing in and out, air touches the nose or the lip and causes the setting-up of air perception mindfulness. This does not depend on colour or form. This is called the image. If the yogin develops the image [sign] and increases it at the nose-tip, between the eyebrows, on the forehead or establishes it in several places, he feels as if his head were filled with air. Through increasing in this way his whole body is charged with bliss. This is called perfection."

(Mindfulness of Respiration. Procedure, pp.158-159)
https://archive.org/stream/ArahantUpatossa-Vimuttimagga-PathOfFreedom.pdf/ArahantUpatissaEharaN.r.tr-PathOfFreedomvimuttimagga#page/n221/mode/2up/

Связь с обликом (āкāра) объясняется в Мохавиччхедани (Mya: .161):

"Samathova taṁ ākāraṁ gahetvā puna pavattetabbassa samathassa nimittanti samathanimittaṁ."

    "Представление (нимитта) спокойствия (саматха) – это представление для повторного вызова спокойствия после улавливания облика (āкāра) спокойствия."

Таким образом, уловив однажды характерные признаки спокойствия, практикующий может, настроившись на это представление, вновь достичь спокойствия. Например, уловив представление достижения медитативного погружения (джхана), практикующий может вновь его достичь, настроившись на уловленное представление.

Такая настройка описывается в Упаккилеса и Гави суттах:
http://awake.kiev.ua/dhamma/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/2Majjhima-Nikaya/Majjhima3/128-upakkilesa-e.html
http://dhamma.ru/canon/an/an9-35.htm
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #24 : 12:20 08 Сентября 2016 »

Из словаря Рис-Девидса:

Nimitta: (nt.) ... M I.119 ( = five sorts of mental images); Nd2 659; DhsA 53 ( = ākāra).

Акара (санскр. äkära, тиб. нампа) — в буддизме ментальная форма, познавательный образ, аспект или содержание сознания. Проблемы перевода термина связаны с его многозначностью в буд. традиции. В эпистемологии реалистич. школ вайбхашики и саутрантики А. называют образ или внутреннее содержание познават. опыта, к-рый возникает в результате контакта органов чувств и конкретного объекта. Вместе с тем А. может быть и тот аспект перцептивного опыта — напр., красный цвет розы, — на к-рый направлено внимание и к-рый в дальнейшем будет удостоверен в ходе перцептивного суждения: «эта роза красная». Если в первом случае можно считать А. внеконцептуальным и невербальным ментальным событием, то во втором выделение аспекта уже является актом различающего познания.
Эти два значения А. развивались соответственно саутрантикой и вайбхашикой.
Согласно йогачаре, А. — это проекция, порожденная не внешним объектом, а мысленным отпечатком (васана). В эпистемологии Дигнаги-Дхармакирти акт познания состоит в том, что сознание вступает в прямое или косвенное отношение с объектом, в результате к-рого следующий момент познават. процесса будет представлять собой А. — образ объекта, также обозначаемого термином сарупъя или садришья, — имеющий форму, аналогичную форме объекта.

Однако Дигнага утверждает, что познавательный акт отражается в двух образах: образе познаваемого (грахъя-акара) и образе познающего (грахака-акара), где первый представляет содержание познания, а второй передает ощущение субъективности этого познавательного акта.

В.Г. Лысенко
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #25 : 22:23 09 Октября 2016 »

Интересна последовательность всё более тонких настроек при практике Анапанасати, описанная в Патисамбхидамагге:

Iti kira ‘‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’’ti sikkhati, ‘‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’’ti sikkhati. Evaṃ sante vātūpaladdhiyā ca pabhāvanā hoti, assāsapassāsānañca pabhāvanā hoti, ānāpānassatiyā ca pabhāvanā hoti. Ānāpānassatisamādhissa ca pabhāvanā hoti; tañca naṃ samāpattiṃ paṇḍitā samāpajjantipi vuṭṭhahantipi.

So then he trains thus 'I shall breathe in calming the body fabrication;' he trains thus 'I shall breathe out calming the body fabrication:' that being so, there is production of the experience of wind, and there is production of out-breaths and in-breaths, and there is production of mindfulness of breathing, and there is production of concentration by mindfulness of breathing, and consequently the wise enter into and emerge from that attainment.

Yathā kathaṃ viya? Seyyathāpi kaṃse ākoṭite paṭhamaṃ oḷārikā saddā pavattanti. Oḷārikānaṃ saddānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi oḷārike sadde, atha pacchā sukhumakā saddā pavattanti. Sukhumakānaṃ saddānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi sukhumake sadde, atha pacchā sukhumasaddanimittārammaṇatāpi cittaṃ pavattati.

Like what? Just as when a gong is struck. At first gross sounds occur and [mind occurs] because the sign of the gross sounds is well apprehended, well attended to, well observed; and when the gross sounds have ceased, then afterwards faint sounds occur and [mind occurs] because the sign of the faint sounds is well apprehended, well attended to, well observed; and when the faint sounds have ceased, then afterwards mind occurs because it has the sign of the faint sounds as its object --

Evamevaṃ paṭhamaṃ oḷārikā assāsapassāsā pavattanti; oḷārikānaṃ assāsapassāsānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi oḷārike assāsapassāse, atha pacchā sukhumakā assāsapassāsā pavattanti. Sukhumakānaṃ assāsapassāsānaṃ nimittaṃ suggahitattā sumanasikatattā sūpadhāritattā niruddhepi sukhumake assāsapassāse, atha pacchā sukhumakaassāsapassāsānaṃ nimittārammaṇatāpi cittaṃ na vikkhepaṃ gacchati.

so too, at first gross in-breaths and out-breaths occur and [mind does not become distracted] because the sign of the gross in­breaths and out-breaths is well apprehended, well attended to, well ob­served; and when the gross in-breaths and out-breaths have ceased, then afterwards faint in-breaths and out-breaths occur and [mind does not become distracted] because the sign of the faint in-breaths and out-breaths is well apprehended, well attended to, well observed; and when the faint in-breaths and out-breaths [are so faint that perception of them] has ceased, then afterwards mind does not become distracted because it has the sign of the faint in-breaths and out-breaths as its object

Брайан Левман пишет, что это прекрасное описание трех видов нимитты, улавливаемых для достижения джханы:

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I think it was a very good description of the three nimittas with regards to ānāpāna meditation (if I'm reading it right), the rough breathing being the parikamma-nimitta, the sublte breathing, the uggaha-nimitta and the recollection of the latter the paṭibhāga-nimitta

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/palistudy/conversations/messages/4814
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Re: Перевод "nimitta"
« Ответ #26 : 15:10 21 Января 2021 »

Майк НЗ составил подборку отрывков из сутт, где слово "нимитта" употребляется в контексте развития собранности ума:
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Bhikkhu Analyo's Encyclopaedia entry on nimitta
http://www.buddhismuskunde.uni-hamburg.de/fileadmin/pdf/analayo/publications.htm

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123)      "Nimitta", in EB, 2003, vol. 7 no. 1 pp. 177–179 download
discusses it's meaning as
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'sign', in the sense of being a characteristic mark of things
In that sense it appears often in the suttas. Thanissaro Bhikkhu translates it as "theme".

Various teachers, such as Ajahn Brahm, and Pa Auk Sayadaw (and Ven Analayo himself according to some of his talks: http://www.audiodharma.org/teacher/208/, http://www.dharmaseed.org/teacher/439/) stress the importance of nimittas for entry into jhana.

In his Encyclopaedia entry Ven Analayo notes:
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The relation of the nimitta to the development of concentration is also reflected in the expressions sign of tranquilty (samathaanimitta), sign of concentration (samadhinimitta), and sign of the mind (cittanimitta), which occur in serveral instances in the discourses. the development of beneficial types of nimitta is particularly relevant to the beginning stages of samatha meditation.
He goes on to describe the commentarial discussion in the Visuddhimagga http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/nanamoli/index.html.

I thought it would be interesting to look at the passages in the Suttas that refer to the nimittas associated with tranquilly and concentration. These are from Ven Analayo's footnotes to the Encyclopaedia article. The quotations and page numbers are from the Wisdom Publications translations by Walshe/Nanamoli/Bodhi.

Sign of tranquilty (samathaanimitta)

DN iii 213. DN 33, page 481
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1.9. ‘There are [sets of] two things that were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord... Which are they?
...
(23) ‘Calm and insight (samatho ca vipassanā ca).
 
(24) ‘The sign of calm and grasping the sign (samatha-nimittañ ca paggaha-nimittañ ca).
...

SN v 66. SN 46.2, p 1570
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“And what, bhikkhus, is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of concentration and for the fulfilment by development of the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration? There are, bhikkhus, the sign of serenity, the sign of nondispersal[62] frequently giving careful attention to them is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of concentration and for the fulfilment by development of the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration.
    [62] Spk: The sign of serenity (samathanimitta) is serenity itself as well as its object (Spk-pṭ: the paṭibhāganimitta or counterpart sign); the sign of nondispersal (abyagganimitta) is synonymous with it.

SN v 105. SN 46.51, p 1599
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“And what, bhikkhus, is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of concentration and for the fulfilment by development of the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration? There are, bhikkhus, the sign of serenity, the sign of nondispersal: frequently giving careful attention to them is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of concentration and for the fulfilment by development of the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration.
Another translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn46/sn46.051.than.html

Sign of concentration (samadhinimitta)

DN iii 226. DN 33, p 490
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What is (d) the effort of preservation? Here, a monk keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration which has arisen, such as a skeleton, or a corpse that is full of worms, blue-black, full of holes, bloated.

DN iii 242. DN 33, p 498
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(25) ‘Five bases of deliverance (vimuttāyatanāni): Here, (a) the Teacher or a respected fellow-disciple teaches a monk Dhamma. And as he receives the teaching, he gains a grasp of both the spirit and the letter of the teaching. At this, joy arises in him, and from this joy, delight (pīti); and by this delight his senses are calmed, he feels happiness (sukhaṁ) as a result, and with this happiness his mind is established; (b) he has not heard it thus, but in the course of teaching Dhamma to others he has learnt it by heart as he has heard it; or (c) as he is chanting the Dhamma ... ; or (d) ... when he applies his mind to the Dhamma, thinks and ponders over it and concentrates his attention on it (anupekkhati); or (e) when he has properly grasped some concentration-sign (samādhi-nimittam ), has well considered it, applied his mind to it (supadhāritaṁ), and has well penetrated it with wisdom (suppaṭividdhaṁ paññāya). At this, joy arises in him, and from this joy, delight; and by this delight his senses are calmed, he feels happiness as a result, and with this happiness his mind is established.

DN iii 279. DN 34, p 515. [As in DN iii 242]

MN i 249. MN 36, p 342.
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45. “Aggivessana, I recall teaching the Dhamma to an assembly of many hundreds, and even then each person thinks of me: ‘The recluse Gotama is teaching the Dhamma especially for me.’ But it should not be so regarded; the Tathāgata teaches the Dhamma to others only to give them knowledge. When the talk is finished, Aggivessana, then I steady my mind internally, quieten it, bring it to singleness, and concentrate it on that same sign of concentration as before, in which I constantly abide.”
    MA explains the “sign of concentration” (sam̄dhinimitta) here as the fruition attainment of emptiness (suññataphalasamāpatti ). See also MN 122.6.
Another translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.036.than.html

MN i 301. MN 44, p 398-399
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12. “Lady, what is concentration? What is the basis of concentration? What is the equipment of concentration? What is the development of concentration?”
 
“Unification of mind, friend Visākha, is concentration; the four foundations of mindfulness are the basis of concentration; the four right kinds of striving are the equipment of concentration; the repetition, development, and cultivation of these same states is the development of concentration therein.”
    BB: The four foundations of mindfulness are the basis of concentration (samādhinimitta) in the sense of being its condition (MA). Here it would seem incorrect to translate nimitta as “sign,” in the sense of either distinctive mark or object. The four right kinds of striving are explained at MN 77.16.
Another translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.044.than.html

MN iii 112. MN 122, p 973.
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10. “Then that bhikkhu should steady his mind internally, quiet it, bring it to singleness, and concentrate it on that same sign of concentration as before. [1154] Then he gives attention to voidness internally. While he is giving attention to voidness internally, his mind enters into voidness internally and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision. When that is so, he understands thus: ‘While I am giving attention to voidness internally, my mind enters into voidness internally and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.
    [1154] MA: This refers to the jhāna that was used as the basis for insight. If, after emerging from the basic jhāna, his mind does not enter into voidness through insight contemplation on his own aggregates or those of others, and he also cannot attain the imperturbable immaterial attainment, he should return to the same basic jhāna that he originally developed and attend to it again and again.
Another translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.122.than.html

AN i 115. AN 3.19, p 213-214
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“So too, possessing three factors, a bhikkhu is capable of achieving a wholesome state not yet attained and of increasing a wholesome state already attained. What three? Here, a bhikkhu diligently applies himself to an object of concentration in the morning, in the middle of the day, and in the evening. Possessing these three factors, a bhikkhu is capable of achieving a wholesome state not yet attained and of increasing a wholesome state already attained.

AN i 256. AN 3.102, p 338.
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Bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is devoted to the higher mind, from time to time he should give attention to three marks.[566] (1) From time to time he should give attention to the mark of concentration, (2) from time to time to the mark of exertion, and (3) from time to time to the mark of equanimity.
    [566] nimittāni. Mp glosses as “three causes” (tīṇi kāraṇāni). The three nimittas are samādhinimitta, paggahanimitta, and upekkhānimitta.
Alternative translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.100.11-15.than.html

AN ii 17. AN 4.14, p 403.
 
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(4) “And what is striving by protection? Here, a bhikkhu protects an arisen excellent object of concentration:[642] the perception of a skeleton, the perception of a worm-infested corpse, the perception of a livid corpse, the perception of a festering corpse, the perception of a fissured corpse, the perception of a bloated corpse. This is called striving by
    [642] samādhinimittaṃ. The six mentioned here are included among the ten asubha meditation subjects in Vism chap. 6.
Alternative translation: http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/4Anguttara-Nikaya/Anguttara2/4-catukkanipata/002-caravaggo-e.html

4. Samvarasutta:  Restraint.

AN iii 23. AN 5.26, p 646
 
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(5) “Again, neither the Teacher nor a fellow monk in the position of a
teaches the Dhamma to a bhikkhu, nor does he teach the Dhamma to others in detail as he has heard it and learned it, nor does he recite the Dhamma in detail as he has heard it and learned it, nor does he ponder, examine, and mentally inspect the Dhamma as he has heard it and learned it, but he has grasped well a certain object of concentration, attended to it well, sustained it well, and penetrated it well with wisdom. In whatever way the bhikkhu has grasped well a certain object of concentration, attended to it well, sustained it well, and penetrated it well with wisdom, in just that way, in relation to that Dhamma, he experiences inspiration in the meaning and inspiration in the Dhamma.

AN iii 321. AN 6.28, p 888-889
 
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When he had spoken, another bhikkhu told him: “Friend, that isn’t the proper occasion for going to see an esteemed bhikkhu. [321] In the evening, when an esteemed bhikkhu has emerged from seclusion and is sitting in the shade of his dwelling with his legs crossed, holding his body straight, having established mindfulness before him, the object of concentration that he attended to during the day is still present to him.
    Mp: “On that occasion when he is sitting in his daytime dwelling it occurs in his mind door.

Sign of the mind (cittanimitta).

SN v 151. SN 47.8, p 1635
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“So too, bhikkhus, here some wise, competent, skilful bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. While he dwells contemplating the body in the body, his mind becomes concentrated, his corruptions  are abandoned, he picks up that sign. He dwells contemplating feelings in feelings … mind in mind … phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. While he dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena, his mind becomes concentrated, his corruptions are abandoned, he picks up that sign.
Alternative translation: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn47/sn47.008.than.html

AN iii 423. AN 6.68, p 969
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“Bhikkhus, (1) it is possible that a bhikkhu who does not delight in company, who is not delighted with company, who is not devoted to delight in company; who does not delight in a group, who is not delighted with a group, who is not devoted to delight in a group, will find delight in solitude when he is alone. (2) It is possible that one who finds delight in solitude when he is alone will acquire the object of the mind. (3) It is possible that one who acquires the object of the mind will fulfill right view. (4) It is possible that one who fulfills right view will fulfill right concentration. (5) It is possible that one who fulfills right concentration will abandon the fetters. (6) Having abandoned the fetters, it is possible that one will realize nibbāna.

Thag. 85
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/thag/thag.01.00x.than.html#passage-85

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Adept in a theme for the mind,
sensing the savor of solitude,
practicing jhana,
masterful, mindful,
you'd attain a pleasure
not of the flesh.

None of these cases refer specifically to "light" nimittas used by Vens Brahm, Pa Auk, and others.  I am aware that there are some references to "light" in the suttas, but I'm afraid I've run out of steam here. Perhaps someone has something to add?

^-^
Mike
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