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Перевод "kāma"
« : 13 Март 2011 06:54 »

Статья из словаря досточтимого Ньянатилоки:

kāma may denote:

    1. subjective sensuality, 'sense-desire';
    2. objective sensuality, the five sense-objects.

1. Subjective sensuality, or sense-desire, is directed to all five sense-objects, and is synonymous with

    * kāma-cchanda, 'sensuous desire', one of the 5 hindrances (nīvarana);
    * kāma-rāga, sensuous lust', one of the ten fetters (samyojana);
    * kāma-tanhā, 'sensuous craving', one of the 3 cravings (tanhā);
    * kāma-vitakka, 'sensuous thought', one of the 3 wrong thoughts (micchā-sankappa; s. vitakka).
    * Sense-desire is also one of the cankers (āsava) and clinging (upādāna).

2. Objective sensuality is, in the canonical texts, mostly called kāma-guna, 'cords (or strands) of sensuality'.

"There are 5 cords of sensuality: the visible objects, cognizable by eye-consciousness, that are desirable, cherished, pleasant, lovely, sensuous and alluring; the sounds ... smells ... tastes ... bodily impressions cognizable by body-consciousness, that are desirable .... " (D.33; M.13, 26, 59, 66).

These two kinds of kāma are called

    1. kilesa-kāma, i.e. kāma as a mental defilement,
    2. vatthu-kāma, i.e. kāma as the object-base of sensuality; first in MNid.. I, p. 1, and frequently in the commentaries.

Sense-desire is finally eliminated at the stage of the Non-Returner (Anāgāmi; s. ariya-puggala, samyojana).

The peril and misery of sense-desire is often described in the texts, e.g. in stirring similes at M. 22, 54, and in the 'gradual instruction' (s. ānupubbī-kathā). See further M.13, M.45, M.75; Sn.v.766ff.; Dhp.186, 215.

The texts often stress the fact that what fetters man to the world of the senses are not the sense-organs nor the sense-objects but lustful desire (chandarāga). On this see A.VI.63; S.XXXV.122, 191. - (App.).

http://www.palikanon.com/english/wtb/g_m/kaama.htm
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Re:Перевод "kāma"
« Ответ #1 : 13 Март 2011 06:59 »

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Re:Перевод "kāma"
« Ответ #2 : 13 Март 2011 07:07 »

Уединение от чувственных удовольствий, упоминаемое в описании первой джханы, находит параллели в Нагаравиндея сутте (МН 150):

te āyasmanto araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti. Natthi kho pana tattha tathārūpā cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā ye disvā disvā abhirameyyuṃ, natthi kho pana tattha tathārūpā sotaviññeyyā saddā ye sutvā sutvā abhirameyyuṃ, natthi kho pana tattha tathārūpā ghānaviññeyyā gandhā ye ghāyitvā ghāyitvā abhirameyyuṃ, natthi kho pana tattha tathārūpā jivhāviññeyyā rasā ye sāyitvā sāyitvā abhirameyyuṃ, natthi kho pana tattha tathārūpā kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā ye phusitvā phusitvā abhirameyyuṃ.

[T]hose venerable ones resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest. For there are no forms cognizable by the eye there of a kind that they could look at and delight in. There are no sounds cognizable by the ear there of a kind that they could listen to and delight in. There are no odors cognizable by the nose there of a kind that they could smell and delight in. There are no flavors cognizable by the tongue there of a kind that they could taste and delight in. There are no tactual objects cognizable by the body there of a kind that they could touch and delight in.
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Re:Перевод "kāma"
« Ответ #3 : 13 Март 2011 07:13 »

Из Сакунаггхи сутты:

Tasmātiha bhikkhave, mā agocare carittha paravisaye. Agocare bhikkhave, carataṃ parivisaye lacchati māro otāraṃ. Lacchati maro ārammaṇaṃ.

Do not stray, monks, into what is not your own range and is the domain of others. Māra will gain access to those who stray into what is not their own range and is the domain of others. Māra will get a hold on them.

Ko ca bhikkhave, bhikkhuno agocaro paravisayo: yadidaṃ pañca kāmaguṇā. Katame pañca: cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā.
Sotaviññeyyā saddā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Ghānaviññeyyā gandhā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Jivhāviññeyyā rasā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Ayaṃ bhikkhave, bhikkhuno agocaro paravisayo.

And what, for a monk, is not his own range and is the domain of others? The five strands of sensual pleasure.... These, for a monk, are not his own range and are the domain of others.

Gocare bhikkhave, caratha sake pettike visaye. Gocare bhikkhave, carataṃ sake pettike visaye na lacchati māro otāraṃ, na lacchati māro ārammaṇaṃ.

Move, monks, in what is your own range, your own ancestral domain. Māra will not gain access to those who move in their own range, their own ancestral domain. Māra will not get a hold on them.

Ko ca bhikkhave, bhikkhuno gocaro sako pettiko visayo, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. Katame cattāro: idha bhikkhave,
Bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Ayaṃ bhikkhave, bhikkhuno gocaro sako pettiko visayoti.

And what, for a monk, is his own range, his own ancestral domain? The four applications of mindfulness. Which four? Here monks, a monk remains contemplating the body in the body, ardent, fully aware, mindful, having removed covetousness and unhappiness with regard to the world. He remains contemplating feelings in feelings ... mind in mind ... phenomena in phenomena, ardent, fully aware, mindful, having removed covetousness and unhappiness with regard to the world. This, for a monk, is his own range, his own ancestral domain.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn47/sn47.006.than.html
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Re:Перевод "kāma"
« Ответ #4 : 13 Март 2011 07:19 »

Из Латукикопама сутты:

Pañca kho ime udāyi kāmaguṇā. Katame pañca: cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Sotaviññeyyā saddā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Ghānaviññeyyā gandhā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Jivhāviññeyyā rasā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Ime kho udāyi pañca kāmaguṇā. Yaṃ kho udāyi ime pañcakāmaguṇe paṭicca uppajjati sukhaṃ somanassaṃ, idaṃ vuccati kāmasukhaṃ mīḷhasukhaṃ puthujjanasukhaṃ anariyasukhaṃ na sevitabbaṃ na bhāvetabbaṃ na bahulīkātabbaṃ. Bhāyitabbaṃ etassa sukhassāti vadāmi.

"And, Udayin, there are these five strings of sensuality. Which five? Forms cognizable via the eye — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. Sounds cognizable via the ear... Aromas cognizable via the nose... Flavors cognizable via the tongue... Tactile sensations cognizable via the body — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. These are the five strings of sensuality. Now, any pleasure & happiness that arises dependent on these five strings of sensuality is called sensual pleasure, a filthy pleasure, a run-of-the-mill pleasure, an ignoble pleasure. And of this pleasure I say that it is not to be cultivated, not to be developed, not to be pursued, that it is to be feared.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.066.than.html
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Re:Перевод "kāma"
« Ответ #5 : 13 Март 2011 07:20 »

Из Маханиддесы:

Katame vatthukāmā? Manāpikā rūpā manāpikā saddā manāpikā gandhā manāpikā rasā manāpikā phoṭṭhabbā; attharaṇā pāvuraṇā dāsidāsā ajeḷakā kukkuṭasūkarā hatthigavāssavaḷavā khettaṃ vatthu hiraññaṃ suvaṇṇaṃ gāmanigamarājadhāniyo raṭṭhañca janapado ca koso ca koṭṭhāgārañca, yaṃ kiñci rajanīyaṃ vatthu – vatthukāmā.
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Re:Перевод "kāma"
« Ответ #6 : 13 Март 2011 07:22 »

Из Саманамандика сутты, МН 78:

Katamā saññā? Saññāpi hi bahū anekavidhā nānappakārakā. Kāmasaññā, byāpādasaññā, vihiṃsāsaññā – itosamuṭṭhānā akusalā saṅkappā.

‘‘Ime ca, thapati, akusalā saṅkappā kuhiṃ aparisesā nirujjhanti? Nirodhopi nesaṃ vutto. Idha, thapati, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi…pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati; etthete akusalā saṅkappā aparisesā nirujjhanti.

What perception? Though perception is multiple, varied, and of different aspects, there is perception od sensual desire, perception of ill will, and perception of cruelty. unwholesome intentions originate from this.

And where do these unwholesome intentions cease without remainder? Their cessation is stated: here, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhana ... It is here that unwholesome intentions cease without remainder.
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Re:Перевод "kāma"
« Ответ #7 : 15 Март 2011 08:33 »

(1) "Kāmā bhikkhave veditabbā, kāmānaṃ nidānasambhavo veditabbo, kāmānaṃ vemattatā veditabbā, kāmānaṃ vipāko veditabbo, kāmanirodho veditabbo, kāmanirodhagāmiṇī paṭipadā veditabbāti iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ. Kiñcetaṃ paṭicca vuttanti.

[1] "'Sensuality should be known. The cause by which sensuality comes into play... The diversity in sensuality... The result of sensuality... The cessation of sensuality... The path of practice for the cessation of sensuality should be known.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said?

Pañcime bhikkhave kāmaguṇā: cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantāmanāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajaniyā. Sotaviññeyyā saddāiṭṭhā kantāmanāpā piya saddā kāmupasaṃhitā rajanīyā. Ghānaviññeyyā gandhā iṭṭhā kantāmanāpā piya kandhā kāmūpasaṃhitā rajaniyā. Jivhāviññeyyā rasā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarasā kāmupasaṃhitā rajaniyā. Kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā iṭṭhā kantāmanāpā piyarūpā kāmupasaṃhitā rajaniyā. Apica kho bhikkhave nete kāmā, kāmaguṇā nāmete ariyassa vinaye vuccanti.

"There are these five strings of sensuality. Which five? Forms cognizable via the eye — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing; sounds cognizable via the ear... aromas cognizable via the nose... flavors cognizable via the tongue... tactile sensations cognizable via the body — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. But these are not sensuality. They are called strings of sensuality in the discipline of the noble ones.

Saṅkapparāgo purisassa kāmo
Nete kāmā yāni citrāni loke,
Saṅkapparāgo purisassa kāmo
Tiṭṭhanti citrāni tatheva loke,
Athettha dhīrā vinayanti chandanti.

The passion for his resolves is a man's sensuality,
not the beautiful sensual pleasures found in the world.
The passion for his resolves is a man's sensuality.
The beauties remain as they are in the world,
while the wise, in this regard, subdue their desire.

Katamo ca bhikkhave kāmānaṃ nidānasambhavo: phasso bhikkhave kāmānaṃ nidāna sambhavo.

"And what is the cause by which sensuality comes into play? Contact is the cause by which sensuality comes into play.

Katamā ca bhikkhave kāmānaṃ vemattatā: añño bhikkhave kāmo rūpesu, añño kāmo saddesu, añño kāmo gandhesu, añño kāmo rasesu, añño kāmo phoṭṭhabbesu. Ayaṃ vuccati bhikkhave kāmānaṃ vemattatā.

"And what is the diversity in sensuality? Sensuality with regard to forms is one thing, sensuality with regard to sounds is another, sensuality with regard to aromas is another, sensuality with regard to flavors is another, sensuality with regard to tactile sensations is another. This is called the diversity in sensuality.

Katamo ca bhikkhave kāmānaṃ vipāko: yaṃ kho bhikkhave kāmayamāno tajjaṃ tajjaṃ attabhāvaṃ abhinibbatteti puññabhāgiyaṃ vā apuññabhāgiyaṃ vā, ayaṃ vuccati bhikkhave kāmānaṃ vipāko.

"And what is the result of sensuality? One who wants sensuality produces a corresponding state of existence, on the side of merit or demerit. This is called the result of sensuality.

Katamo ca bhikkhave kāmanirodho: phassanirodho bhikkhave kāmanirodho.
 
Ayameva ariyo āṭṭhaṅgiko: maggo kāmanirodhagāminī paṭipadā. Seyyathīdaṃ: sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammā ājīvo sammāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi.

"And what is the cessation of sensuality? From the cessation of contact is the cessation of sensuality; and just this noble eightfold path — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration — is the way leading to the cessation of sensuality.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an06/an06.063.than.html
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Re: Перевод "kāma"
« Ответ #8 : 23 Ноябрь 2014 08:16 »

Как переводить прилагательное "kāma" в сложных словах?

Видимо, вариант "страстный" в данном случае неуместен, поскольку обозначает:

1. соотн. с сущ. страсть I, связанный с ним

2. Проникнутый сильным, напряженным чувством; чрезвычайно сильный.

3. Целиком и с крайним увлечением отдающийся какому-либо делу, влечению, страсти.

4. Весь проникнутый чувством любви; крайне чувственный.

http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/efremova/250794/%D0%A1%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9

А здесь имеется в виду чувственность, увлеченность плотскими удовольствиями, в любых, даже умеренных, проявлениях:

Чувственный

        4. Доставляющий физическое наслаждение; телесный, плотский.

        5. Испытывающий преимущественно телесные, плотские влечения; склонный к удовлетворению таких влечений.

        6. Выражающий такую склонность, такое влечение.

        7. Возбуждающий такую склонность, такое влечение.

http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/efremova/266742/%D0%A7%D1%83%D0%B2%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9

При этом страсть (рага) в целом может относиться не только к сфере чувственного (кама-рага), но и к сфере телесного (рупа-рага) и бестелесного (арупа-рага).
( См. http://dhamma.ru/forum/index.php?topic=591.0 )
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Re: Перевод "kāma"
« Ответ #9 : 23 Ноябрь 2014 14:56 »

Необходимо помнить так же, что в сложных словах "-kāma" может означать "желающий" в самом общем смысле.
Например, некий мистер X, который в частых примерах и притчах "хочет жить, не хочет умирать и желает благополучия":

Цитировать
Atha puriso āgaccheyya jīvitukāmo amaritukāmo sukhakāmo dukkhappaṭikkūlo.

Из наставления Рахуле о рассматривании своих поступков:
Цитировать
Yadeva tvaṃ, rāhula, kāyena kammaṃ kattukāmo ahosi, tadeva te kāyakammaṃ paccavekkhitabbaṃ
... хочешь совершить телесное действие...

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Re: Перевод "kāma"
« Ответ #10 : 24 Август 2016 13:53 »

Из Критического словаря пали:

kāma, m. [ts., cf. BHSD, SWTF, Encyclop. of Buddhism VI, 1 1996 s.v.; Hôb. s.v. ai],
1. (mostly in sg.) wish, desire, pleasure;
2. (in pl.) the objects of sensual pleasure viz. rūpa, sadda, gandha, rasa, phoṭṭhabba,
cf. kāmaguṇa, ...

Critical Pali Dictionary
http://pali.hum.ku.dk/cpd/search.html
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