Развитие саматхи и випассаны "в одной связке"

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Спасибо большое! Думаю, что в практике Випассаны, основанной на momentary concentration.  так и происходит – сосредоточение и мудрость(осознанность) развиваются параллельно.
А Випасаана всухую  - имеется ввиду совсем  без  применения концентрации – так бывает?
Происходит естественное пресыщение  помехой  для устранения -  имеется ввиду прекращение -хватания\цепляния за нее или что-то другое?
Разве цель не цепляться за все, и за удовольствие или для развития джхан это надо?
По поводу радостной и болезненной практики Випассаны – что Вы думаете по поводу 16 стадий знания (the 16 stages of insight knowledge), которые последовательно проходятся во время практики?
Если я правильно понимаю, во время практики джхан эти стадии тоже проходятся, т.е. не будет всегда комфорта и счастья?
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Думаю, что в практике Випассаны, основанной на momentary concentration.  так и происходит – сосредоточение и мудрость(осознанность) развиваются параллельно.
А Випасаана всухую  - имеется ввиду совсем  без  применения концентрации – так бывает?

При практике Випассаны "всухую" как и развивается "мгновенное сосредоточение" (кханика-самадхи), но не развивается устойчивая джхана (аппана-джхана).

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Происходит естественное пресыщение  помехой  для устранения -  имеется ввиду прекращение -хватания\цепляния за нее или что-то другое?

В основе страсти, отвращения и заблуждения лежит, как описывается в Титтхия сутте, неосновательное внимание. Когда внимание переключается, помехи или ослабевают, или прекращаются.

И конечно, когда становится очевидной тягостность помех, то прекращается присвоение, и происходит пресыщение, - семь распознаваний в частном варианте.

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Разве цель не цепляться за все, и за удовольствие или для развития джхан это надо?

Здесь, конечно, важно не цепляться за удовольствие джхан, хоть оно и очень полезно.
При развитии саматхи и випассаны в одной связке, заодно отслеживается возникновение и исчезновение восторга и счастья джхан. Благодаря этому проще не привязываться даже к ошеломляющему счастью.

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По поводу радостной и болезненной практики Випассаны – что Вы думаете по поводу 16 стадий знания (the 16 stages of insight knowledge), которые последовательно проходятся во время практики?

В суттах им соответствуют "семь распознаваний" - ключевая последовательность в развитии мудрости.

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Если я правильно понимаю, во время практики джхан эти стадии тоже проходятся, т.е. не будет всегда комфорта и счастья?

Это как теплая палатка на холоде, в которой можно отогреться :)
Могут всплывать очень мучительные ощущения, но комфорт и счастье дают прочную опору для ума, на которую можно опереться, - как говорил Ачан Ли Дхаммадхаро, прочные доски пола.
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Досточтимый Махаси Саядо описывает развитие саматхи и випассаны в одной связке в своей работе "Брахмавихара Дхамма":

Developing Loving-kindness With Insight

After achieving absorption by developing meditation on loving-kindness a person can reach Arahantship if he or she continues to develop insight with that absorption as a basis. Even if falling short of Arahantship, he or she can become a Non-returner. The way to contemplate is to first enter into absorption on loving-kindness, and when this absorption ceases, to contemplate that absorption. This method of plunging into absorption, then contemplating it by alternately developing tranquillity and insight in pairs is called “yuganaddha.” The method of developing insight is the same as the method of noting and contemplating used by the meditators here. It is to contemplate and note what has been seen, heard, touched, or imagined as “seeing,” “hearing,” “touching,” or “imagining,” as appropriate. Likewise, after leaving absorption, this absorption should be noted and contemplated. The only difference is that a person who has attained absorption, contemplates the absorption, whereas other meditators, not being endowed with absorption, should note and contemplate the mind or consciousness that is aware of what was seen, and so forth.

What should be done according to this method of contemplation in pairs is to develop loving-kindness by repeating: “May all beings be happy.” Then, contemplate with the thoughts of loving-kindness. Developing loving-kindness along with the contemplation of the thoughts in pairs is the “yuganaddha” method. If one contemplates like this, the mind that is radiates loving-kindness to a particular person while reciting, the material element of the sound, the ear-consciousness that hears, and the mind-consciousness that dwells in the heart while reciting: “May all be happy,” will all be found to vanish instantaneously and repeatedly. Such realisation is genuine insight knowledge that knows the characteristic of impermanence. This is stated as having vanished instantly (khayaṭṭhena aniccaṃ), so it is impermanent. Let us bear it in mind and contemplate while reciting like this:

“May all the monks, meditators, and individuals residing in this meditation centre be happy.”

“May all beings in this meditation centre be happy.”

“May all monks and individuals within this town be happy.”

“May all beings in this town be happy.”

“May all people living in this country be happy.”

“May all beings be happy.” (Repeat thrice)

Every time it is recited as: “May all be happy” with consciousness, the mind that is put into this consciousness, and the mind that intends to recite, the vocal action, and the sense object of the voice that utters, immediately vanish.

Escaping Rebirth by Rejecting Wrong-view

“Diṭṭhiñca anupaggamma, sīlavā dassanena sampanno.
Kāmesu vinaya gedhaṃ, na hi jātuggabbhaseyya punaretīti.”

Diṭṭhiñca: the view that clings to the idea that there really is an individual, a self, or a being, which is a false belief, anupaggamma: not wishing to grasp with attachment. What is being stressed by the use of this expression is that although one may be developing loving-kindness as: “May he or she be happy,” or, “May all beings be happy,” the terms ‘individual’ and ‘being’ are mere concepts. In fact, there is no such thing as an individual, a being, or a self. The main point is to realise by direct knowledge that the so-called self, is nothing but an aggregate of the four primary elements,which arise and pass away incessantly. False views regarding these phenomena should be rejected.

The method of rejection may be explained in this way. This false conception should be rejected with one’s acquired knowledge that has been heard and read (sutamayā-ñāṇa) before meditation is practised. If one is able to attain absorption on loving-kindness, one should first enter that absorption, and on exiting from it, rejection should be done by practising contemplation of the absorption and the material body on which it relies. A person who has not yet achieved absorption, should reject it through intuitive knowledge by contemplating with mindfulness the materiality that is relied upon, and through recitation which is the sense object, at each moment of developing loving-kindness as “May he be happy,” or, “May all beings be happy.” It should also be rejected by relying fundamentally on absorption on loving-kindness, and by realising the truth through contemplation of the respective mental and physical phenomena.

No special mention need be made with regard to the way of rejection by knowledge acquired by hearing or reading. The phenomenal nature of mind and matter should be rejected by practical meditation exercises, noting and reflecting after listening to teachings, as far as possible. The way of rejection by contemplation and awareness of the absorption is to contemplate the jhānic-mind after the absorption on loving-kindness has ceased. It is just like those with no achievement of absorption who realise by contemplating and noting the mind that imagines and knows at every moment of arising consciousness. It is necessary to contemplate and become aware several times in succession by absorbing into jhāna and contemplating the jhānic-mind. It will then become obvious during the course of contemplation that the jhānic-mind wishing others to be happy, and the materiality on which reliance is made, as well as the mind that contemplates and knows them, are quite different from one another. At that moment, the material object that is depended on, and which does not know and feel the sensation, will be found to be distinct from the jhānic-mind that has just occurred wishing others to be happy. The mind that contemplates and knows will also be distinguished. It will then be known by one’s own insight that there is no living entity, being, or self, and that this material body is comprised of two different things: mind, which knows the sensation, and materiality, which does not know the sensation. When realised as such self-view (atta-diṭṭhi) will be got rid of. This is the way in which false view is completely dispelled with analytical knowledge of body and mind (nāmarūpa-pariccheda-ñāṇa), after practising absorption on loving-kindness and insight meditation alternately.

From this stage, if effort is continuously made in the meditation exercise by absorbing into jhāna and then contemplating that jhāna, realisation will come through personal insight knowledge that there is only cause and effect. This knowledge will lead to rejection of wrong view. Thereafter, the jhānic-mind, the contemplative mind, and the materiality on which reliance is made, will be found to be continually arising and dissolving. Rejection will then be made knowing the characteristics of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and not-self. Eventually, self-view will be totally eradicated with the path knowledge of Stream-winning. This is how wrong-view is rejected and rooted out by developing jhāna and insight, alternately.

The way of rejection that has now been stated is similar to the method of rejecting wrong-view after developing loving-kindness, saying “May happiness be gained” and after contemplating the materiality with awareness of the mind that is pervaded with loving-kindness. The only difference is between absorption on loving-kindness and ordinary loving-kindness. The method of contemplation is, however, the same. Let us now contemplate after developing loving-kindness according to this method. Please contemplate and note while reciting.

“May all monks, novices, meditators and lay persons in this meditation centre be happy.”

“May all monks, novices, lay persons and deities in this township be happy.”

“May all citizens of the Union of Burma be happy.”

“May all beings be happy.” (Repeat thrice)

How to Contemplate for Insight

So: A person who has attained absorption on loving-kindness tattha: while being absorbed in loving-kindness yadeva rūpagataṃ vedanāgataṃ saññāgataṃ saṅkhāragataṃ viññāṇagataṃ: only materiality, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, and consciousness are present. (It means that there is no sense of self at that moment). Te dhamme: that materiality, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, and consciousness are regarded, aniccato: as impermanent, dukkhato: as suffering, rogato: as a disease, gaṇḍato: as a tumour, sallato: as a barb, aghato: as not free from misery, ābādhato: as oppressive, parato: as alien, palokato: as easily destructible, suññato: and devoid of any entity, and anattato: not constituting a living being, but merely a natural phenomenon, samanupassati: and are contemplated and perceived as such.

The above describes the way of cultivating insight after exiting from absorption. What is contemplated is materiality, feelings, etc., as and when they occur at the moment of absorption. It is similar to how the meditators here contemplate and note, “seeing,” “hearing,” or, “imagining” after consciousness of what is seen, heard, or imagined. At the moment when jhānic-mind occurs, materiality on which the jhānic-mind depends, is present. It is extremely pure, refined and good. As these good sensations pervade the entire body, one would feel very comfortable. It is similar to the characteristics of the knowledge of arising and passing away (udayabayañāṇa). This materiality on which reliance is made and material elements or sense-objects that have taken place by virtue of absorption are “yadeva rūpagataṃ.” Feelings, etc., that occur simultaneously in association with the jhānic-mind are “vedanāgataṃ,” “saññāgataṃ,” and “saṅkhāragataṃ.” The jhānic-mind is “viññāṇagataṃ.” This is how one who has attained absorption contemplates the jhānic-mind, etc. This resembles the way of contemplating and noting the arising consciousness as “imagining,” when it occurs, by the meditators here.

How awareness and perception is gained by insight-knowledge through contemplation as has been stated is shown as “aniccato,” etc., eleven characteristics in all. One endowed with deep knowledge can grasp all eleven characteristics. A person who is lacking in knowledge may know only a few. The most significant point, however, is to know the true characteristics of impermanence, suffering, and not-self. Hence, the Buddha laid emphasis on these three characteristics. If these three are truly perceived and known, the remaining eight can also be understood. For instance, paloka: easily destructible, carries the same sense as impermanence. The five characteristics that are similar to illness are all suffering: rogato: a disease, gaṇḍato: a tumour, sallato: a barb, aghato: not free from misery, ābhādato: oppressive. Parato: alien, and suññato: devoid of any entity, convey the same meaning as not-self. That is why I explained that the three characteristics of impermanence, suffering and not-self can be realised.

Impermanence and Contemplation of Impermanence

It states in the Commentary: aniccaṃ veditabbaṃ: impermanence must be understood, aniccatā veditabbā: the characteristic of impermanence must be understood, aniccānupassanā veditabbā: insight knowledge that contemplates and knows impermanence should be understood. Let us recite:

“Impermanence must be understood. The characteristic of impermanence must be understood. Insight that contemplates impermanence must be understood.”

The Commentary explains further: Aniccanti khandhāpañcakaṃ: what is impermanent means the five aggregates. Please recite the following motto:-

“The five aggregates are impermanent.”

These five aggregates, which are transient by nature, are the mind and matter that existed at the moment the jhānic-mind occurred. These are referred to in the Pāḷi text as “rūpagataṃ, vedanāgataṃ, etc.” These are the phenomena that should be correctly and vividly known as impermanent when contemplating after exiting from absorption. It is similar to what is clearly known by the meditators with personal insight knowledge of the mental and physical phenomena at the moment of seeing, hearing, or imagining, in the course of their contemplation with awareness. The characteristic of impermanence, realised through contemplation and noting, may be explained thus:-

Hutvā: what did not exist before occurred, abhāvākāro: then suddenly disappeared and vanished, aniccalakkhaṇaṃ: this transient nature is to be noted and understood as the characteristic of impermanence. It can been expressed in the form of a motto as stated below, which may be recited:–

“Vanishing after occurring is the characteristic of impermanence.”

All things are impermanent if they arise instantly followed by dissolution. For example, a house is constructed in an open field. Is it not a house that has sprung up anew where it did not exist before? Yes, it is. Is it not subjected to decay for the simple reason that one day or another, with the passage of time, it will meet with destruction? Should we say that it is everlasting or impermanent? If a thing appears and then disappears, it is undoubtedly impermanent and transitory. In the same way, one is born into this world, which is called existence. One has come into being afresh, but will one day pass away. As a living being, one is no doubt impermanent and not everlasting. It is like a flash of lightning that appears and vanishes suddenly. These are examples of the transience or the characteristic of impermanence.

A meditator who is contemplating and noting will perceive the manifestations of the sensations of touch, of thoughts and imagination, sights and sounds constantly arising and vanishing, and then appearing again followed by dissolution at every moment of noting when concentration becomes strong. This will be realised by personal insight knowledge. The meditator will become elated that everything that occurs passes away instantaneously. This is the characteristic of impermanence. When awareness occurs while contemplating that things have arisen and disappeared at once, one will come to realise that these are all impermanent. This knowledge or awareness is knowledge of contemplation of impermanence (aniccānupassanā-ñāṇa). This is knowledge through contemplation and noting and not the knowledge of reflective thought or learning.

When a meditator gains absorption on loving-kindness, he or she is developing mindfulness wishing, “May all be happy.” While thus immersed, the jhānic-mind occurs wishing others to be happy. This jhānic-mind may last for a second or a few minutes. When it ceases, then normal thoughts will arise. This is called exiting from absorption. It is something like waking up from a deep sleep. If a meditator plunges into absorption with the predetermination to continue insight contemplation after exiting from absorption, the moment the jhānic-mind ceases, the contemplative mind of insight consciousness will occur. He or she distinguishes the arising consciousness of insight and the cessation of the jhānic-mind. It is not that the jhānic-mind only is known. The simultaneous arising and dissolution of the other four aggregates are also known and realised. The meditator clearly perceives and understands that everything is arising and dissolving incessantly, so it is impermanent.

Applying this method to develop insight knowledge we will develop loving-kindness. Let’s recite, radiating loving-kindness, and at the same time, contemplate the characteristic of impermanence of the sense-object-the sound of our chanting:–

“May all beings be happy ....” (Repeat thrice)

Suffering and Contemplation of Suffering

Since it has been taught: “Whatever is transient is suffering (yadaniccaṃ taṃ dukkhaṃ),” the five aggregates being transient are suffering. Among these five aggregates, only painful feeling, which is one constituent of the aggregate of feelings, is suffering for being painful. The remaining four aggregates and pleasant feelings are not miserable conditions that cause distress. However, since they are transitory, they are unsatisfactory (dukkha). Also because they are likely to cause trouble and pain, they are unsatisfactory. Let’s recite a motto as below:-

“The five aggregates are, in reality, suffering.”

These five aggregates, being incessantly arising and dissolving, are always causing pain and suffering. These aggregates by causing stiffness, heat, etc., are often oppressive. That is why they are miserable. This nature of constant suffering and misery is to be understood as the characteristic or mark of suffering (dukkha). Let’s recite a motto as follows:-

“Constant oppression caused by the arising and dissolution of the aggregates is the characteristic of suffering.”

A meditator who constantly contemplates the arising and passing away of mind and matter, perceives the formation of new aggregates instantaneously followed by the dissolution of the old ones. He or she realises the cause of unbearable pain and suffering, and becomes disgusted finding them to be miserable and frightful through personal insight-knowledge. This is the genuine knowledge of the contemplation of suffering (dukkhānupassanā-ñāṇa). I have coined a motto, which may be recited as follows:-

“Awareness of suffering and misery, having seen the transient nature of arising and dissolution at the moment of contemplation and noting, is knowledge of the contemplation of suffering.”

Let us now recite by developing loving-kindness as: “May all be happy” while contemplating the oppression caused by the arising and dissolution of phenomena, while developing the contemplation of suffering. Please follow the recitation:–

“May all beings be happy ....” (Repeat thrice)

Not-self and Contemplation of Not-self

What is not-self? Since it has been taught: “Whatever is suffering is not-self (yaṃ dukkhaṃ tadanattā) the five aggregates, which are suffering are not a self or a living entity. They are unmanageable and cannot be coaxed to become happy in as much as their inherent nature is suffering. Since they are unmanageable, they cannot be regarded as one’s own self, so that which is not-self (anatta) is ungovernable. Let’s recite a motto that embraces the said meaning.

“The five aggregates, being ungovernable, are not-self.”

If they are one’s own self, they should respond as one wishes. The five aggregates refuse to behave as one wishes, and comply with one’s demands. They occur according to circumstances, and under unforeseen circumstances, they occur against one’s will. Something good and pleasurable may occur, but it will not continue as one may wish. It immediately vanishes. Since the five aggregates occur contrary to one’s own wish, and are ungovernable, they should be noted and realised as not-self. Hence, it has been stated that the characteristic of not-self is unmanageable, i.e. which does not occur according to one’s own wish (avasavuttana kāro anattalakhanaṃ). Let’s recite the motto as below:–

“Not occurring according to one’s own wish is the characteristic of not-self.”

A meditator who is continuously contemplating mind and matter will find that they incessantly appear and disappear according to the relevant circumstances against one’s will. Therefore, he or she realises with insight-knowledge that they are not-self, which is ungovernable. This is the genuine knowledge of contemplation of not-self (anattānupassanā-ñāṇa). Let us recite this motto, which has been composed in the light of the above:–

“Finding it to be ungovernable and unresponsive to one’s own wish while contemplating and noting, and realising it as not-self is the knowledge of contemplation of not-self.”

Though one may wish to develop loving-kindness throughout the day and night, when radiating loving-kindness mentally or verbally as “May all beings be happy,” it will not be possible to do so if perseverance and energetic effort are lacking. It would only be possible if there is full accomplishment of strong will, diligence, and resolution. Hence, it is something that does not occur according to one’s wish. In order to follow up with an action to contemplate the nature of not-self, let us develop loving-kindness. Please follow the recitation:—

“May all beings be happy…” (Repeat thrice)

It would amount to wholesome kamma of the sensual realm (kāmāvacara kusala) if sincere contemplation of loving-kindness is done to realise the characteristics of impermanence, etc., by sincerely reciting: “May all beings be happy.” The contemplation of the jhānic-mind by one who has achieved absorption is contemplating a state of mind that is highly meritorious (mahaggata-kusala). The only difference is between the nature of kāmāvacara and mahaggata kusala. However, the way of contemplating loving-kindness is identical. Hence, while contemplating the virtuous thought of loving-kindness, etc., when insight-knowledge becomes mature, the complete cessation of mind and matter (nibbāna) will be realised through the knowledge of the Noble Path. Following this path knowledge, the knowledge of fruition will be attained. If such an attainment is accomplished, one will become a Stream-winner. A person who has achieved absorption on loving-kindness who continues to contemplate and note, will attain nibbāna through the achieve the path and fruition of Once-returning and Non-returning. In most cases, Non-returning is attained. If one becomes a Non-returner one is entirely free from passionate desire (kāmarāga), and so will no longer be reborn in the sensual realms. Rebirth will take place only in the realms of form and the formless realms. It is very likely that one will be reborn in the Pure Abodes (Suddhāvāsa).

Continuation of the Second Metta Sutta

So: A person who becomes a Non-returner by contemplating the absorption on loving-kindness as impermanent, kāyassa bhedā: on the break-up of the material body, maraṇā: at death, paraṃ: after (becomes), suddhāvāsānaṃ devānaṃ: a Brahma in the Pure Abodes, sahabyataṃ: having the same status as a Brahma, upapajjati: will take rebirth. The Buddha continued: “O, monks! Ayaṃ upapatti: are reborn in these Pure Abodes, puthujjanehi: unlike the majority of ordinary individuals, asādhāraṇā: is an unrivalled attainment.”

Since it has been stated as reaching the Pure Abodes, it is also necessary to attain the fourth absorption. By developing meditation on loving-kindness, only the third absorption can be attained, so one might wonder how one could reach the Pure Abodes. It may be answered that after becoming a Non-returner by contemplating the absorption on loving-kindness, the fourth absorption is achieved through meditation on equanimity (upekkhā). To achieve this is not difficult for a Non-returner — it is quite easy. Even a person who has become a Non-returner through insight contemplation without the attainment of any absorption can easily achieve the fourth absorption and reach the Pure Abodes. Hence, it should be understood that the Pure Abodes are reached after attainment of the fourth absorption through the practice of meditation on equanimity.

Practising Meditation to Gain Insight

People are generally driven by unwholesome states such as greed, anger, etc., based on the sensations arising from the six senses at every moment of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, and knowing. This is due to not realising the true characteristics of impermanence, etc., of the natural phenomena that manifest at the moment of seeing, etc. Hence, the purpose of contemplating for insight is to prevent any opportunity for the occurrence of greed, and so on. If the true characteristics of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and not-self are truly known, the Dhamma that has been realised will deter mental defilements from arising. This deterrent effect that subdues defilements is the faculty of merits derived from insight meditation. The realities of mental and physical phenomena are conspicuous for only a very brief moment, as and when they occur. This is why contemplation should be made while they are in the process of arising and becoming. Only when contemplation is carried on at the moment of their arising, can the true nature of their characteristics be known and realised. I have composed a motto in this regard: “Real awareness of the phenomena can take place only when contemplation is made at the moment of their arising.”

To cite an example: A flash of lightning is seen only at the moment that it occurs. Therefore, if one wishes to seeing a lightning flash, one observe it while it flashes. The brilliant light is not visible and cannot be noticed after the flash has occurred. Nor could it be seen by mere imagination before the electrical discharge produces a flash of lightning. The ultimate realities (paramattha) of mind (nāma) and matter (rūpa) are apparent only while in the process of arising. They vanish immediately after arising, and no longer exists. Before arising they are not yet in existence. So if they are contemplated before arising or after dissolution, the truth cannot be known. Only phenomena are contemplated while they are occurring, can their true nature be realised. Only after knowing the nature of phenomena, is there awareness of how it occurs and dissolves instantaneously. This is composed in a motto, which may be recited:–

“Only when it’s true nature is known, the initial arising (udaya) and final dissolution (vaya) can be perceived.”

“Udaya” means “arising” or “appearance.” “Vaya” means “dissolution” or “disappearance.” It is usually stated as “arising and dissolution.” When awareness becomes sharp and active while contemplating the nature of mind and matter at every moment of their arising and dissolution, the ultimate realities of mental and physical phenomena will be clearly perceived with insight knowledge into how they begin to arise and end in dissolution. This cannot be perceived and known by merely uttering “arising and disappearing.” Only when the truth is known, personal knowledge and realisation is achieved that these phenomena are truly impermanent since they vanish immediately after arising. This phenomenal occurrence is described in the form of a brief motto,which is to be recited:–

“Awareness of the nature of impermanence occurs only when arising and dissolution is perceived directly.”

When impermanence is seen and realised, unsatisfactoriness, and not-self are also known. Contemplation of the nature of mind and matter with its three characteristics is genuine insight meditation. It is essential to contemplate and note continuously the arising phenomena at every moment of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, and knowing to bring about the development of genuine insight-knowledge. Contemplating and noting in this way can be  regarded as practising insight meditation.

http://www.aimwell.org/brahmaviharadhamma.html
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Samatha-yāna and Vipassana-yāna
by L.S. Cousins

http://www.academia.edu/1417366/Samatha-yana_and_Vipassana-yana
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Из Тапусса сутты:

[1] "Then the thought occurred to me: 'If, having seen the drawback of sensual pleasures, I were to pursue that theme; and if, having understood the reward of renunciation, I were to familiarize myself with it, there's the possibility that my heart would leap up at renunciation, grow confident, steadfast, & firm, seeing it as peace.'

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an09/an09.041.than.html

Рик Хенсон задействует этот прием для предпочтительного закрепления умелого поведения по сравнению с неумелым:

"Because of your brain’s built-in negativity bias, it is SO IMPORTANT to
consciously, deliberately help your brain register positive experiences.

...

These are typically places where the new positive experience is the
opposite of, the antidote to the old one. 
Like current experiences of worth replacing old feelings of shame or
inadequacy. Or current feelings of being cared about and loved replacing
old feelings of rejection, abandonment, loneliness. Or a current sense of
one's own strength replacing old feelings of weakness, smallness."   

http://media.rickhanson.net/home/files/PositiveEmotions.pdf

Жаль, конечно, что он часто скатывается в терминологию позитивной психологии, и в наукообразие, но в целом направление его упражнений вполне соответствует Учению Будды.

В переведенной на русский язык статье он дает указания о том, как закрепить "отпускание":

"Полностью откройтесь всему благу, возникающему в этом пространстве,  отдайте себя целиком и отпустите всё остальное.

Пребывайте в этом состоянии несколько минут… соединяясь с благом и открываясь ему… пребывая в нем…"

http://vnimatelnost.com/2015/03/18/letting-go-practice/

Подобные элементы можно заметить и в остальных материалах курса "Train Your Brain":

http://www.rickhanson.net/writings/articles/train-your-brain/
https://www.rickhanson.net/multimedia/audio/talks/train-your-brain/
http://www.wisebrain.org/tools/talks-and-videos/train-your-brain
http://www.wisebrain.org/tools/train-your-brain

Краткое содержание методов Рика Хенсона:
http://media.rickhanson.net/home/files/WiseBrainMethods.pdf

Буддийский курс "Нейро-бхавана":
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLzIL9K5r7KmiPLRWCR2v10w-WYl4VzPan
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Прием, который Рик Хенсон мимоходом упоминает:

"Now, continuing to be centered in feelings of worth and well-being, bring to mind
lightly something you are ashamed of."

http://media.rickhanson.net/home/files/wortharticle.pdf#page=9

похож на подход досточтимого Аюкусалы: http://dhamma.ru/forum/index.php?topic=1393.0

и на "титрацию" Питера Левина: http://dhamma.ru/forum/index.php?topic=443.msg12351#msg12351

На мой взгляд, это предельно облегченный первоначальный вариант развития саматхи и випассаны в одной связке, которое в итоговом варианте описывается так:

 So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṃ khayañāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmesiṃ. So idaṃ dukkhanti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ. Ayaṃ dukkhasamudayoti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ. Ayaṃ dukkhanirodhoti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ. Ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ: ime āsavāti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ. Ayaṃ āsavasamudayoti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ. Ayaṃ āsavanirodhoti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ. Ayaṃ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti yathābhūtaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ.

"When the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I directed it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations (āsavā). I discerned, as it had come to be, that 'This is stress... This is the origination of stress... This is the cessation of stress... This is the way leading to the cessation of stress... These are fermentations... This is the origination of fermentations... This is the cessation of fermentations... This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.'

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.004.than.html

Ведь, многократно наблюдая собранным умом возникновение ощущения (как описано в Сукха сутте и Самадхи сутте), можно достичь бесстрастия по отношению к ним, положив конец влечениям (асава), и  связанному с этим страданию.

А в методах вышеупомянутых авторов как раз отслеживается возникновение страдания.

Как описано в еще одной Самадхи сутте, и последующих за ней суттах в Сачча-самьютте, познание возникновения и прекращение страдания - не метафизическое теоретизирование, а практика в состоянии уединения и собранности ума.

Как говорится в Титтхаятанади сутте:

Vediyamānassa kho panāhaṃ bhikkhave idaṃ dukkhanti paññāpemi. Ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo'ti paññāpemi. Ayaṃ dukkhanirodho'ti paññāpemi. Ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā'ti paññāpemi.

To one experiencing feeling I declare, 'This is stress.' I declare, 'This is the origination of stress.' I declare, 'This is the cessation of stress.' I declare, 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.'

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.061.than.html
« Последнее редактирование: 21:18 04 Июня 2015 от Ассаджи »
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Из Саммадиттхи сутты:

Yato kho āvuso ariyasāvako evaṃ dukkhaṃ pajānāti, evaṃ dukkhasamudayaṃ pajānāti, evaṃ dukkhanirodhaṃ pajānāti, evaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadaṃ pajānāti, so sabbaso rāgānusayaṃ pahāya paṭighānusayaṃ paṭivinodetvā asmīti diṭṭhimānānusayaṃ samūhanitvā avijjaṃ pahāya vijjaṃ uppādetvā diṭṭheva dhamme dukkhassantaṅkaro hoti. Ettāvatāpi kho āvuso ariyasāvako sammādiṭṭhi hoti. Ujugatāssa diṭṭhi. Dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato āgato imaṃ saddhammanti.

"Now, when a disciple of the noble ones discerns stress, the origination of stress, the cessation of stress, and the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress in this way, when — having entirely abandoned passion-obsession, having abolished aversion-obsession, having uprooted the view-&-conceit obsession 'I am'; having abandoned ignorance & given rise to clear knowing — he has put an end to suffering & stress right in the here-&-now, it is to this extent, too, that a disciple of the noble ones is a person of right view... who has arrived at this true Dhamma."

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.009.than.html
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Прием, который Рик Хенсон мимоходом упоминает:

"Now, continuing to be centered in feelings of worth and well-being, bring to mind
lightly something you are ashamed of."

http://media.rickhanson.net/home/files/wortharticle.pdf#page=9

Рик Хенсон подробно описывает этот прием как четвертый шаг "процесса HEAL", "Link positive and negative material".

Текст: http://www.wisebrain.org/media/slides/Hardwiring_Happiness_NZ_01.15.pdf#page=32

Аудио: Feeling cared about https://www.rickhanson.net/writings/books/hardwiring-happiness/

На мой взгляд, такое поглощение доминанты неумелого поведения доминантой умелого поведения может происходить как самопроизвольно при развитии саматхи, так и намеренно при развитии саматхи и випассаны в одной связке.
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Джек Корнфилд рассказывает об исцелении травмы с помощью многократного краткого касания, "вмещения" боли с опорой на просторное счастливое состояние (начиная с 4:00):

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Перевод комментария ко второй части Патисамбхидамагги:

Saddhammappakāsinī
 
An Annotated Translation with Special Reference to Yuganaddhavagga

THIRI NYUNT
(Ph.D Thesis)

https://www.academia.edu/16682822/Saddhammappakasini-Yuganaddhavagga

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empiriocritic_1900 пишет:

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Будда во многих местах перечисляет все пять совокупностей, и говорит, что их нужно рассматривать, как не-я, не моё. Что нужно рассматривать зависимое возникновение феноменов.

Это рассмотрение и есть развитие мудрости. Но если не понимать, как именно их рассматривать, то рассмотрение подменяется умственным рассуждением, приведением аргументов (такого вида: поскольку то и это, феномены безличны). В итоге, непосредственного видения безличности и непостоянства  феноменов, зависимого возникновения феноменов не получается.

А их нужно и можно наблюдать, наблюдать именно само их возникновение и исчезновение. Ведь как возникают ментальные феномены? Внимание, в обычном состоянии, склонно рассеиваться, блуждать, выхватывая то одно, то другое восприятие или представление, воспринимаемое и осознаваемое в шести видах контакта. То, что выхватывает внимание, распознаётся, переживается как приятное/неприятное/нейтральное. Нейтральные переживания вызывают мысленные ассоциации, приятные/неприятные - влечение/отторжение. Здесь уже возникает жажда, и внимание концентрируется на том, как жажду удовлетворить, или на страдании из-за того, что это не получается.

И всё это вполне возможно наблюдать, если сначала направить внимание на какой-нибудь "якорь", и начать отслеживать отклонения внимания от него. Замечать отвлечения внимания и возвращать его к предмету - хорошо известное, элементарное дело. Но здесь требуется чуть иное - возвращать внимание в тот момент, когда возникает реакция (мысленная ассоциация или влечение/отторжение) на распознанный и переживаемый (как приятный/неприятный/нейтральный) феномен. Внимание следует за этой реакцией - тут-то и нужно его остановить, вернуть к якорю. Затем будет новая попытка внимания отвлечься на какой-то феномен и увлечься реакцией на него. Это нужно тоже отследить и пресечь, и т.д. Так и делается видно обусловленное и безличное возникновение феноменов.

...

Если чуть более подробно:

Наблюдая и  затем пресекая (а не просто пресекая) ментальные феномены, отчётливо различаются и отбрасываются пять препятствий. Реакции влечения и отторжения - обнаруживаются  и отбрасываются. Возникающее нежелание продолжать практику - обнаруживается и тоже отбрасывается (для этого нужно просто приложить усилие, и вопреки ему продолжить наблюдение и пресечение). С другой стороны, стоить хоть чуть-чуть что-то увидеть, хоть на мгновение, ещё не очень ясно различить возникновение феномена и обусловленность феномена, может возникнуть преждевременная радость,  возбуждающая, и побуждающая прервать практику. Это тоже отбрасывается приложением усилия и продолжением наблюдения и пресечения. Время от времени может возникать сомнение - почему не видно то, или видно это? Откуда вообще эта эмоция, или эта мысль взялась? Нет ли ошибок в практике? Несмотря на это, нужно прилагать усилие и продолжать наблюдение и пресечение.

Продолжение практики приводит к ясному различению того, как и при каких условиях феномены возникают и исчезают. Этот успех рождает воодушевление и желание продолжать наблюдение.

Успешное, раз за разом, всякий раз как они возникают (пусть хоть каждые две минуты) отбрасывание препятствий рождает ощущение свободы от них. Эта свобода переживается, как радость.

В то же время, наблюдение зависимого возникновения и непостоянства феноменов само собой отстраняет эти феномены, объективирует их, переводит их в категорию "не я". Не приходится специально напоминать, что это не "я возбужден" или "я недоволен", а просто "при таких-то условиях возникло недовольство/возбуждение" - потому что сам процесс наблюдения уже задаёт именно такой угол зрения на эти феномены.  Отделенность от наблюдаемых феноменов тоже переживается как радость - именно потому что видна их обусловленность, видно их непостоянство.   

Эти две радости, соединяясь, становятся сильным переживанием, восторгом, который ощущается даже физически. А когда интенсивность восторга снижается, устанавливается ощущение блаженной ясности и лёгкости. Это состояние сохраняется в течение какого-то промежутка времени - и в этот промежуток времени отвлечений нет, внимание не блуждает, притом даже без специальных усилий.

Таким образом, при наблюдении феноменов, входящих в пять совокупностей, и отбрасывании пяти препятствий действительно начинают переживаться, начинают проявляться факторы пробуждения. Естественно, что если практика продолжается непродолжительное время, то и факторы пробуждения будут ощущаться непродолжительно, неустойчиво - но, тем не менее, будут.

Однако вне зависимости от того, сколько времени длится их переживание (пусть даже долго), факторы пробуждения являются непостоянными, и обусловленными (поскольку проявляются в зависимости от практики). То есть, их переживание - это отнюдь не ниббана, и даже не приближение к ней.

Зачем тогда такая практика нужна? От неё троякая польза.

Во-первых, ясно различая феномены, можно видеть, что именно ведет не только к неблагим поступкам и к неблагой речи, но и к неблагим ментальным состояниям (это особенно важно для людей с сильной склонностью к недоброжелательности, как, например, у меня), и, следовательно, к чему именно нужно прилагать усилия, чтобы отбрасывать это, и даже не допускать возникновения этого. Таким образом, совершенствуется нравственность.

Во-вторых, ясное видение непостоянства, безличности, зависимого возникновения феноменов убеждает в истинности Дхаммы.

В-третьих, проявления факторов пробуждения (пусть временные и обусловленные) становятся позитивными переживаниями, позитивным опытом, который побуждает продолжать практику.

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https://dharma.org.ru/board/post358168.html#358168
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