Во многих книжках пишут о развитии прозрения в непостоянство, мучительность и безличность пяти совокупностей (кхандх), но мало где есть указания по такой практике:
The Craft of the Heart
by Ajaan Lee Dhammadharo
Just as the body needs a shelter as a basis for its well-being, and speech needs a listener as a basis for being effective, in a similar way, the mind — if it's to become trained and firm in concentration — needs a kammatthana: an assignment or exercise. A kammatthana is like medicine or food. To know the theme of your exercise is enough to start getting results in your practice of concentration.
Here we will first divide the exercises into two categories: external and internal. External exercises deal with sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, and ideas; the internal exercises deal with the five aggregates (khandha): physical phenomena (rupa), feelings (vedana), labels (sañña), mental fashionings (sankhara), and consciousness (viññana). If you're alert and discerning, both categories — external as well as internal — are enough to achieve concentration unless you neglect to treat them as exercises. If you attend to them, they are all you need to attain concentration. But beginners, whose powers of discernment are still weak, should start first with the internal exercises. Start out by studying the body — "physiology from the inside" — by scrutinizing the four properties of earth, water, fire, and wind. People whose powers of discernment have been sufficiently developed can then give rise to concentration using any of the themes of meditation, whether internal or external.
The internal exercises should be done as follows: Focus on the properties of earth, water, fire, and wind that appear in the body. Don't let your thoughts wander outside. Focus exclusively on your own body and mind, fixing your attention first on five examples of the earth property: kesa — hair of the head; loma — hair of the body; nakha — nails; danta — teeth; taco — skin, which wraps up the body and bones. Scrutinize these five parts until you see that they are unattractive, filthy, and repulsive, either with regard to where they come from, where they are, their color, their shape, or their smell.
If, after focusing your thoughts in this way, your mind doesn't become still, go on to scrutinize five examples of the water property: pittam — gall, bitter and green; semham — phlegm, which prevents the smell of digesting food from rising to the mouth; pubbo — pus, decayed and decomposing, which comes from wounds; lohitam — blood and lymph, which permeate throughout the body; sedo — sweat, which is exuded whenever the body is heated. Scrutinize these things until you see that — with regard to origin, location, color, smell and the above-mentioned aspects — they are enough to make your skin crawl. Focus on them until you're convinced that that's how they really are, and the mind should settle down and be still.
If it doesn't, go on to examine four aspects of the fire property: the heat that keeps the body warm; the heat that inflames the body, making it feverish and restless; the heat that digests food, distilling the nutritive essence so as to send it throughout the body (of the food we eat, one part is burned away by the fires of digestion, one part becomes refuse, one part feeds our parasites, and the remaining part nourishes the body); the heat that ages the body and wastes it away. Consider these four aspects of the fire property until you see their three inherent characteristics, i.e., that they are inconstant (aniccam), stressful (dukkham) and not-self (anatta).
If the mind doesn't settle down, go on to consider the wind property: the up-going breath sensations, the down-going breath sensations, the breath sensations in the stomach, the breath sensations in the intestines, the breath sensations flowing throughout the entire body, and the in-and-out breath. Examine the wind property from the viewpoint of any one of its three inherent characteristics, as inconstant, stressful, or not-self. If the mind doesn't develop a sense of dispassion and detachment, gather all four properties together — earth, water, fire and wind — and consider them as a single whole: a physical phenomenon. That's all they are, just physical phenomena. There's nothing of any substance or lasting worth to them at all.
If this doesn't lead to a sense of dispassion and detachment, go on to consider mental phenomena (nama), which are formless: vedana — the experiencing of feelings and moods, likes and dislikes; sañña — labels, names, allusions; sankhara — mental fashionings; and viññana — consciousness.
Once you understand what these terms refer to, focus on the feelings that appear in your own heart and mind. In other words, observe the mental states that experience moods and feelings, to see at which moments there are feelings of pleasure, pain, or indifference. Be aware that, "Right now I'm experiencing pleasure," "Right now I'm experiencing pain," "Right now I'm experiencing a feeling that's neither pleasure nor pain." Be constantly aware of these three alternatives (the feeling that's neither pleasure nor pain doesn't last for very long). If you're really composed and observant, you'll come to see that all three of these feelings are, without exception, fleeting, stressful, and not-self; neither long nor lasting, always shifting and changing out of necessity: sometimes pleasure, sometimes pain, never satisfying your wants or desires. Once you see this, let go of them. Don't fasten onto them. Fix your mind on a single preoccupation.
If your mind still isn't firm, though, consider mental labels next. What, at the moment, are your thoughts alluding to: things past, present, or future? Good or bad? Keep your awareness right with the body and mind. If you happen to be labeling or alluding to a feeling of pleasure, be aware of the pleasure. If pain, be aware of the pain. Focus on whatever you are labeling in the present, to see which will disappear first: your awareness or the act of labeling. Before long, you'll see that the act of labeling is fleeting, stressful, and not-self. When you see this, let go of labels and concepts. Don't latch onto them. Fix your mind on a single preoccupation.
If your mind still isn't firm, go on to consider mental fashionings: What issues are your thoughts forming at the moment: past or future? Are your thoughts running in a good direction or bad? About issues outside the body and mind, or inside? Leading to peace of mind or to restlessness? Make yourself constantly alert, and once you're aware of the act of mental fashioning, you'll see that all thinking is fleeting, stressful, and not-self. Focus your thoughts down on the body and mind, and then let go of all aspects of thinking, fixing your attention on a single preoccupation.
If the mind still doesn't settle down, though, consider consciousness next: What, at the moment, are you cognizant of — things within or without? Past, present, or future? Good or bad? Worthwhile or worthless? Make yourself constantly alert. Once your powers of reference and alertness are constant, you'll see immediately that all acts of consciousness are fleeting, stressful, and not-self. Then focus on the absolute present, being aware of the body and mind. Whatever appears in the body, focus on it. Whatever appears in the mind, focus on just what appears. Keep your attention fixed until the mind becomes firm, steady, and still in a single preoccupation — either as momentary concentration, threshold concentration, or fixed penetration — so as to form a basis for liberating insight.
Thus for concentration or steadiness of mind to arise in a fully developed form and to be firmly maintained depends on the sort of internal exercises mentioned here, dealing with the body, feelings, labels, mental fashionings, and acts of consciousness. These are the foods of concentration. The four frames of reference (satipatthana) are its guardian nurses. Whoever wants his or her concentration to be strong should nourish it well. Once the mind has been properly nourished and put into shape, it can be put to effective use.http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/thai/lee/craft.html