Брахма как правило сидит на лотосе. Это же изображение сильно напоминает, внешне, Авалокитешвару. Где-то я читал, что Махаяна на Ланке не распространилась, однако, не факт, что не было небольших общин вообще.
The island's interest in Mahayana started at the very beginning of the new
movement. Nagajuna's most brilliant disciple and successor, Ariyadeva, was a
Sinhalese of royal birth. According to Tibetan sources, Nagajuna spent his
last days in a monastery at Sripavata, a location now identified with a
plateau just outside Nagajunakonda in Andhra Pradesh. Significantly, the
ruins of a monastery called Simhala Vihara flourished at Sripavata from the
first century ce onwards, and according to an inscription found on the site,
this monastery was inhabited by Sri Lankan monks. It is not at all
improbable that this was where Nagajuna and Ariyadeva first met and that
from an early time Sri Lankans went there to study Mahayana. And the
evidence shows that 800 years later Mahayana still had a strong following in
the island. We read, for example, that in the ninth century Ratnarasanta,
the abbot of Somapura in India, came to the island accompanied by the envoy
sent by the Sri Lankan king. He arrived with some 200 Mahayana texts and
stayed for seven years; and when he finally returned to India to take up the
position of 'gatekeeper scholar' at Vickramasila, he left behind 500
disciples. Mahayana flourished in Sri Lanka until it finally succumbed to
Theravada at the beginning of the medieval period. Nonetheless, it left
behind numerous traces of its presence in the island's literature, sculpture
and popular religious practices.http://www.urbandharma.org/udnl/nl060502.html
1. Боги также могут практиковать Дхарму, в той или иной форме. (Есть ли в ПК этому подтверждения прямые?)
Да, Будду называют "учителем богов и людей".
Вот, например, сутта "Вопросы Сакки" (ведийский эквивалент - Шакра, Индра)http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.21.2x.than.html
2. Подчинение богов местных культов - традиция более давняя, и сформировалась отнюдь не во времена Падмасамбхавы. Наверное, можно говорить об аутентичности этой традиции.
"Аутентичность" по-русски означает "подлинность". Вы, наверное, имеете в виду исторические корни традиции подчинения богов местных культов. Это началось, по-видимому, в седьмом веке:
Early Buddhism in Sri Lanka was not theistic, Prof Dharmadasa maintains. The Attakatha commentaries of this early period had nothing on deity worship. It is believed that the Buddhists at that time were very puritanical, believing only in venerating the "Triple Gem", which comprised the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha.
It is in the 7th century AD that one hears of deity worship. The famous Buddhist chronicle, Mahawamsa, mentions King Dappula of the Ruhuna region in South Sri Lanka, worshiping a local deity called Upulvan, although he was a devout Buddhist. The 7th century AD also saw the worship of the Hindu God of War, Skanda, known among the Tamils as Murugan. The Mahawamsa gives a detailed description of King Manavamma worshiping Skanda. By the 12th.century AD, deity worship had come to stay in Sri Lanka and was becoming a salient feature of Buddhism in the island, Prof Dharmadasa observes.
South Indian incursions bring deities
According to EW Adikaram (Early History of Buddhism in Ceylon, 1952), deity worship was introduced to Buddhists Sri Lanka in the second phase of South Indian incursions. In the first phase, which includes the incursion of the Tamil prince, Ellara, in the 2nd century BC, the Sri Lankan Buddhists were very antagonistic to the religion the invaders/immigrants brought. It was dubbed "false."
The antagonism seems to have existed even in the 4th century AD, when King Mahesena is believed to have destroyed Devales or Hindu shrines in Trincomalee and other places.
Deity worship in Sri Lanka seems to have had something to do with the status of Hinduism in neighbouring South India. According to some scholars, when Hinduism was gaining ascendancy in South India from the 6th century AD on, deity worship began to appear in Sri Lanka in a noticeable way.http://www.tamilcanadian.com/page.php?cat=113&id=3384