"Dhyānasamādhi Sūtra instructs that awareness should be developed in the following way:
念諸息遍身, 亦念息出入, 悉觀身中諸出息入息, 覺知遍至身中乃至足指遍諸毛孔, 如水入沙, 息出覺知從足至髮遍諸毛孔亦, 如水入沙.
Mindfulness [during] all breaths pervades the body, [while] being as well mindful of the out- and in-breaths. Completely contemplating the inside of the body [during] all out-breaths and in-breaths, awareness pervades and reaches inside the body up to the toes and the fingers and pervades every pore [on the surface of the body], just like water entering sand, aware from the feet to the hair [while] breathing out [and in], pervading every pore as well, just like water entering sand."
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Among the sixteen methods, (1) the first practice of inhalation [includes] the six fold practice of inhalation and exhalation (i.e., counting, following, fixing, contemplation, shifting, and purification).
(2) So does the practice of exhalation.
(3) Single-mindedly one is mindful of inhalation and exhalation [and knows] whether they are long or short. For example, a person running in terror, climbing a mountain, carrying a heavy load, or being upset; in such situations, the breath becomes short. When in times of peril one attains a great relief and joy, acquires profit, or is released from jail, in such cases the breath becomes long. All breaths are classified into two categories: long and short. For this reason it is said: "The breath is long," "The breath is short." Thus [observing the length of the breath], one also practices the six fold practice of inhalation and exhalation.
(4) Being mindful of the breath pervading the body, one is still mindful of the breaths going out and coming in. One thoroughly observes the exhalations and inhalations within one's body. One perceives the breath pervading the body and filling all pores, down to those on the toes, just like water soaking into sand. When the breath goes out, one perceives the breath pervading all pores, from those on the feet to those on the head, also like water soaking into sand. Just like the air that fills bellows, whether it is going out or coming in, the wind blowing in and out through the mouth and nose [fills the body]. One observes the whole body that the wind fills, like holes of a lotus root [filled with water] and a fishing net [soaked in water]. Further, it is not that the mind only observes the breath coming in and going out through the mouth and nose. [The mind] sees the breath coming in and going out through all pores and the nine apertures [of the body]. Thus one knows that the breath pervades the body.
(5) Eliminating various [unfavorable] physical functions, one is again mindful of inhalation and exhalation. When one first practices [mindful] breathing, if one feels laziness, sleepiness, and heaviness in one's body, one should eliminate them all.
(6) The body becomes light, soft, and fitting for meditation; thus the mind experiences joy. Again by being mindful of inhalation and exhalation, one eliminates laziness, sleepiness, and heaviness of mind. The mind becomes light, soft, and fitting for meditation; thus the mind experiences joy. Having completed the application of mindfulness to breathing, next one practices the application of mindfulness to sensation. [Namely,] having attained the application of mindfulness to the body, now one further attains the application of mindfulness to sensation; thus one truly experiences joy. Further, having understood the reality of the body, one now wishes to know the reality of the mind and mental functions. For this reason, one experiences joy.
(7) By being mindful of inhalation and exhalation, one experiences comfort. By being mindful of inhalation and exhalation, joy increases; it is called comfort. Alternatively, the first pleasure that arises in the mind is called joy. The subsequent joy that fills the body is called comfort. Also, the comfortable sensations in the first and second stages of meditation are called joy. The comfortable sensations in the third stage of meditation are called comfort.
(8) When one experiences various mental phenomena, one should also be mindful of inhalation and exhalation. Various types of mind arise and cease: polluted mind, unpolluted mind, distracted mind, concentrated mind, righteous mind, and evil mind. Such aspects of mind are called mental phenomena. When the mind experiences joy, one should still be mindful of inhalation and exhalation.
(9) The joy experienced before arose spontaneously and was not aroused intentionally. Because one is mindful of one's own mind, one is gladdened. Question: For what reason does one arouse joy intentionally? Answer: It is because one wishes to cure two types of mind: distracted and concentrated. By putting the mind in such a state [of joy], one can be liberated from defilements. For this reason, one applies one's mindfulness to the elements, and the mind arouses joy. If the mind is not gladdened [spontaneously], one should diligently gladden the mind.
(10) When the mind is concentrated, one should also be mindful of inhalation and exhalation. If the mind is unsettled, one should forcibly settle it. As is stated in a sutra: "When the mind is settled, that is wisdom. When the mind is scattered, that is not wisdom."
(11) When the mind is emancipated, one should also be mindful of inhalation and exhalation. If the mind is not emancipated [spontaneously], one should forcibly emancipate it. It is just like a sheep that has many cockleburs stuck to it, which one [is trying to] pull out of its wool one by one. Releasing the mind from binding defilements is done in the same way. This is called emancipation by means of the application of mindfulness to the mind.
(12) Observing impermanence, one should also be mindful of inhalation and exhalation. One observes that the elements are impermanent; they arise and cease; they are empty and without self; when they arise, the elements arise in emptiness, and when they cease, they cease in emptiness; in these [elements] there is no male, no female, no person, no agent, and no recipient. This is the observation in conformity with impermanence.
(13) Observing the emergence and dispersal of conditioned elements, one is mindful of inhalation and exhalation. This is called "emergence and dispersal." [When] conditioned elements emerge in the world, they gather because causes and conditions met in the past, and they disperse because those causes and conditions cease. Such observation is called the observation of emergence and dispersal.
(14) Observing release from binding desires, one is mindful of inhalation and exhalation. [When] the mind is released from its binding defilements, it will be the supreme element. This is the observation in conformity with the release from desires.
(15) Observing extinction, one is mindful of inhalation and exhalation. The suffering of binding defilements is exhausted wherever one is situated, and the spot [of one's present residence] becomes peaceful. This is the observation in conformity with extinction.
(16) Observing abandonment, one is also mindful of inhalation and exhalation. Abandonment of lust, defilements, the five aggregates consisting of physical and mental [elements], and the conditioned elements: this is the supreme serenity. Such observation is in conformity with the application of mindfulness to the elements. These are called the sixteen methods.http://philabuddhist.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Kumarajiva-Sutra-on-the-Concentration-of-Sitting-Meditation-Fascile-1-Parts-1-and-4_rev.pdf