В инете мало материалов на эту тему, разве что:http://dharmafarer.googlepages.com/07AssadaSa3.102piya.doc
2 The key tenses
What is interesting in the Assāda Sutta is the use of the different Pali verbs and tenses for the two different groups of people mentioned here: sattā lokassa (the world’s beings) and samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā lokassa (the world’s recluses and brahmins). In §2 the world’s beings who did not have any direct knowledge (na abbhaññāsuṃ) of assāda, ādīnava and nissaraṇa are described in the past tense: “they dwelled (vihariṃsu) with a mind that is not free….” The word abbhaññāsuṃ (“they do not directly know”) is the past tense 3rd person plural of abhi-jānāti (“he directly knows”), the noun of which is abhiññā.
In the case of those beings (in the same paragraph) who had direct knowledge (that is, personal experience) (abbhaññāsuṃ) of these three states, “they dwell (viharanti) with a mind that is free….” Here, however, the present tense 3rd person plural (viharanti, “they dwell”) is used.
Then, in the following §3, the world’s recluses and brahmins who lack understanding (nâppajānanti) of the three states “do not dwell (na…viharanti) accomplished…” Both negative verbs are in the present tense. And finally, in the case of the world’s recluses and brahmins who understand (pajānanti) these three states, they will dwell (viharissanti) accomplished in their goal. The first verb is in the present tense, and the second (spiritual accomplishment) is in the future tense.
In canonical Pali, the past tense (aorist) is not always as well demarcated in time as in modern English. The Pali aorist is used for all kinds of past actions: the historical or narrative past (especially the present perfect, desesiṃ, “I have taught”). As Warder notes, when more precise demarcations of time relations are needed, participles are used in conjunction with the main verb.1 However, from the Sutta context, it is clear that the Buddha is referring to the nature of spiritual development before the Teaching (only past tense), and when the Teaching is available (all three tenses).