Перевод "sati" - стр. 1 - Язык пали - Постижение credit

Добро пожаловать, Гость. Пожалуйста, войдите или зарегистрируйтесь.

Имя пользователя: Пароль:
Страницы: [1] 2 3 4  Все

Автор Тема: Перевод "sati"  (Прочитано 13316 раз)

0 Пользователей и 1 Гость просматривают эту тему.

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Перевод "sati"
« : 05 Март 2006 11:13 »

Термин "сати" в повседневном употреблении означает "память". Это значение стоит помнить, чтобы не запутаться в тонкостях употребления термина в текстах по практике.

“Katama~nca, bhikkhave, satindriya.m? idha, bhikkhave, ariyasaavako satimaa hoti paramena satinepakkena samannaagato cirakatampi cirabhaasitampi saritaa anussaritaa.

"И какова, монахи, способность памятования? При этом, монахи, благородный ученик памятующ, одарен превосходным памятованием и благоразумием, помнит и вспоминает давно сделанное и сказанное".

(СН V 197-8 )
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/sutta/samyutta/sn48-010.html

Соответствующий санскритский термин 'sm.rti' означает "память, воспоминание".

В контексте буддийской практики термини пробретает более точное значение. В Дхаммасангани 16 приводится такой список близких по смыслу слов: 

Katamaa tasmi.m samaye sati hoti? Yaa tasmi.m samaye sati anussati pa.tissati sati sara.nataa dhaara.nataa apilaapanataa asammussanataa sati satindriya.m satibala.m sammaasati– aya.m tasmi.m samaye sati hoti.

Здесь "сати" объясняется как:

anussati - памятование;
sara.nataa - вспоминание;
dhaara.nataa - удерживание (в уме);
apilaapanataa - перечисление (инвентаризация) в уме;
asammussanataa - не отвлечение.

Что же именно удерживается в уме?

В "Вопросах Милинды" дается объяснение:

“yathaa, mahaaraaja, ra~n~no cakkavattissa bha.n.daagaariko raajaana.m cakkavatti.m saaya.m paata.m yasa.m saraapeti ‘ettakaa, deva, te hatthii, ettakaa assaa, ettakaa rathaa, ettakaa pattii, ettaka.m hira~n~na.m, ettaka.m suva.n.na.m, ettaka.m saapateyya.m, ta.m devo saratuu’ti ra~n~no saapateyya.m apilaapeti. evameva kho, mahaaraaja, sati uppajjamaanaa kusalaakusalasaavajjaanavajjahiinappa.niitaka.nhasukkasappa.tibhaagadhamme apilaapeti ‘ime cattaaro satipa.t.thaanaa, ime cattaaro sammappadhaanaa, ime cattaaro iddhipaadaa, imaani pa~ncindriyaani, imaani pa~nca balaani, ime satta bojjha"ngaa, aya.m ariyo a.t.tha"ngiko maggo, aya.m samatho, aya.m vipassanaa, aya.m vijjaa, aya.m vimuttii’ti. tato yogaavacaro sevitabbe dhamme sevati, asevitabbe dhamme na sevati. bhajitabbe dhamme bhajati, abhajitabbe dhamme na bhajati. eva.m kho, mahaaraaja, apilaapanalakkha.naa satii”ti.

Just as, Your Majesty, the treasurer of a king who is a cakka-vattin causes the cakka-vattin king to remember his glory evening and morning [saying], 'So many, lord, are your elephents, so many your horses, so many your chariots, so many your foot soldiers, so much your gold, so much your wealth, so much your property; may my lord remember.' Thus he calls to mind the king's property. Evan so, your Majesty, sati, when it arises, calls to mind dhammas that are skilful and unskilful, with faults and faultless, inferior and refined, dark and pure, together with their counterparts: these are the four establishments of mindfulness, these are the four right endeavours, these are the four bases of success, these are the five faculties, these are the five powers, these are the seven awakening-factors, this is the noble eight-factored path, this is calm, this is insight, this is knowledge, this is freedom. Thus one who practises yoga resorts to dhammas that should be resorted to and does not resort to dhammas that should not be resorted to; he embraces dhammas that should be embraced and does not embrace dhammas that should not be embraced. Just so, Your Majesty, does sati have the characteristic of calling to mind.

“yathaa, mahaaraaja, ra~n~no cakkavattissa pari.naayakaratana.m ra~n~no hitaahite jaanaati ‘ime ra~n~no hitaa, ime ahitaa. ime upakaaraa, ime anupakaaraa’ti. tato ahite apanudeti, hite upagga.nhaati. anupakaare apanudeti, upakaare upagga.nhaati. evameva kho, mahaaraaja, sati uppajjamaanaa hitaahitaana.m dhammaana.m gatiyo samanveti ‘ime dhammaa hitaa, ime dhammaa ahitaa. ime dhammaa upakaaraa, ime dhammaa anupakaaraa’ti. tato yogaavacaro ahite dhamme apanudeti, hite dhamme upagga.nhaa’ti. anupakaare dhamme apanudeti, upakaare damme upagga.nhaati. eva.m kho, mahaaraaja, upagga.nhanalakkha.naa sati.

Just as, Your Majesty, the adviser-treasure of the king who is a cakka-vatin knows those things that are beneficial and unbeneficial to the king [and thinks], 'These things are beneficial, those unbeneficial; these things are helpful, these unhelpful.' He thus removes the unbeneficial things and takes hold of the beneficial. Evan so, Your Majesty, sati, when it arises, follows the courses of beneficial and unbeneficial dhammas: these dhammas are beneficial, these unbeneficial; these dhammas are helpful, these unhelpful. Thus one who practises yoga removes unbeneficial dhammas and takes hold of beneficial dhammas; he removes unhelpful dhammas and takes hold of helpful dhammas. Just so, Your Majesty, does sati have the characteristic of taking hold.

(Mil 37-8; перевод из "The Buddhist Path to Awakening" by Rupert Gethin, стр. 37-38 )

Таким образом, в контексте практики "сати" означает удерживание в уме той или иной системы отсчета, служащей для различения умелых и неумелых качеств с помощью "дхамма-вичая", и последующего устранения неумелых, развития умелых качеств с помощью "четырех совершенных усилий" фактора "вирия". Именно в такой последовательности развиваются первые три из семи "факторов Пробуждения".
« Последнее редактирование: 23 Январь 2007 10:36 от Ассаджи »
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #1 : 17 Июль 2007 13:48 »

Еще по поводу "сати" есть тема:

"Сати" и модель ТОТЕ
http://board.buddhist.ru/showthread.php?t=291
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #2 : 22 Январь 2008 15:06 »

Записан

AlexMF

  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 119
    • Клуб Вольных Путешественников
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #3 : 01 Май 2008 01:36 »

Внесу свой сатанг. Сати สติ (пали) - ум, рассудок, сознание, здравомыслие; присутствие духа. Это современное значение.
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #4 : 22 Май 2008 14:36 »

Цитировать
Вот здесь, кажется, у Вас опечатка:

"сати-упаттхана"
http://dhamma.ru/forum/index.php/topic,320.msg4037.html#msg4037

Так как: http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:1387.pali

Всё правильно, сати-упаттхана, "установление памятования".

Из интервью Бхиккху Бодхи:

We can see this problem in some of the simplest Pali words. For instance, the word samadhi can be translated as “concentration, composure, collectedness, mental unification, etc.,” but none of these renderings convey the idea that samadhi denotes a specific meditative state, or set of meditative states, in the Buddhist (and broader Indian) system of spiritual cultivation. Even the word sati, rendered mindfulness, isn’t unproblematic. The word derives from a verb, sarati, meaning “to remember,” and occasionally in Pali sati is still explained in a way that connects it with the idea of memory. But when it is used in relation to meditation practice, we have no word in English that precisely captures what it refers to. An early translator cleverly drew upon the word mindfulness, which is not even in my dictionary. This has served its role admirably, but it does not preserve the connection with memory, sometimes needed to make sense of a passage.

Satipatthana is often translated “foundation of mindfulness,” which sounds elegant; but if one knows Pali one might suspect that the compound represents not sati + patthana (which gives us “foundation of mindfulness”), but sati + upatthana, “establishment of mindfulness” (the u dropping off through union of vowels). Then, if one knows the texts in the original, one will have encountered a number of phrases that pair sati with words related to upatthana, such as upatthitassati, “one with mindfulness established,” but no other phrases that pair it with forms related to patthana. And this would confirm the case for “establishment of mindfulness” over “foundation of mindfulness.” However more graceful the latter might sound, the accent is on the internal process of setting mindfulness up rather than on the object to which it applies.

http://www.inquiringmind.com/Articles/Translator.html

As Ven. Nyanaponika explains once again, "This expression, in various grammatical forms, is frequently used in connection with 'sati', e.g. in our Discourse, satim upatthapetva...

http://www.buddhachat.org/forum/showthread.php?t=7422
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #5 : 24 Май 2008 10:07 »

Цитировать
Я дилетант в этой области, но может быть всё же я здесь прав или не совсем не прав. Думаю, Вы тогда лучше сможете объяснить правильный вариант.

"Установление" это, по-моему, и есть "паттхана" :

setting forth, putting forward, setting up

http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:1387.pali

По сути эта статья говорит о том, что в ранних текстах слово "паттхана" вообще не встречается, а появляется впервые только в Махапакаране Абхидхаммы, в значении "источник".

Я сейчас проверил, действительно, слова "паттхана" в суттах вообще нет.

Таким образом, в этой статье Рис-Девидс приводит не значение слова "паттхана", а значение слова "сатипаттхана" как "установление памятования".

Цитировать
а "упаттхана" не имеет значения "установление":

http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:3712.pali


В санскрите (по MW):

≫ upasthāna
    upa-sthā́na n. the act of placing one's self near to, going near, approach, access (upa-sthā́naṃ-√kṛ, to give access or scope for ŚBr. i)
    • coming into the presence of, going near to (in order to worship), worshipping, waiting on, attendance ŚBr. KātyŚr. ĀśvŚr. MBh. &c
    • standing near, presence, proximity, nearness Yājñ. Hcat
    • staying upon or at, abiding, a place of abiding, abode Nir
    • assembly MBh. R. BhP
    • any object approached with respect, a sanctuary, abode (of a god) PārGṛ
    • a particular part of the Saṃdhyā MW

prasthāna
...
    • starting-point, place of origin, source, cause (in jñāna-pr○, N. of wk.)
...

В сутте, по-моему, скорее говорится об установлении (-ях) внимания, а не о приближениях к нему...

"Placing" - это как раз "установление".

По санскритско-русскому словарю Кочергиной:

upasthā 1) останавливаться 2) подходить, приближаться к 3) обращаться к кому-л. 4) прислуживать 5) уважать, почитать 6) наступать (о погоде)

upasthāna 1) подход 2) присутствие 3) прислуживание 4) уважение, почитание

"Паттхана" и "прастхана" здесь вообще ни при чем.

По словарю Маргарет Коун:

upaṭṭhāna 1. going near, keeping close to; presence, appearance; serving, waiting on, attendance; worshipping;...

Но прежде всего важны глоссы из самих палийских текстов:

( ГЛОССА, глоссы, ж. (греч. glossa). Заметка переписчика, читателя на полях рукописи или вставленная в текст рукописи, содержащая толкование непонятного слова или места (филол.). Глоссы в гомеровских текстах. http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ushakov/779902 )

Pakatiassāsapakatipassāse nissāya uppannanimittampi assāsapassāsāti nāmaṃ labhati. Upaṭṭhānaṃ satīti taṃ ārammaṇaṃ upecca tiṭṭhatīti sati upaṭṭhānaṃ nāma.

"Сати упаттхана" означает, что "сати", приблизившись, устанавливается на той опоре сосредоточения (араммана) (перцептивном образе (нимитта), возникшем на основе вдохов и выдохов).

(Патисамбхидамагга-Аттхакатха 2.509)

Это комментарий к главе Патисамбхидамагги об Анапанасати. В Патисамбхидамагге к тому же описываются все четыре "сатипаттханы":

Kāyo upaṭṭhānaṃ, no sati; sati upaṭṭhānañceva sati ca. Tāya satiyā tena ñāṇena taṃ kāyaṃ anupassati. Tena vuccati – ‘‘kāye kāyānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānabhāvanā’’ti.

Vedanā upaṭṭhānaṃ, no sati; sati upaṭṭhānañceva sati ca. Tāya satiyā tena ñāṇena taṃ vedanaṃ anupassati. Tena vuccati – ‘‘vedanāsu vedanānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānabhāvanā’’ti.

Cittaṃ upaṭṭhānaṃ, no sati; sati upaṭṭhānañceva sati ca. Tāya satiyā tena ñāṇena taṃ cittaṃ anupassati. Tena vuccati – ‘‘citte cittānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānabhāvanā’’ti.

Dhammā upaṭṭhānaṃ, no sati; sati upaṭṭhānañceva sati ca. Tāya satiyā tena ñāṇena te dhamme anupassati. Tena vuccati – ‘‘dhammesu dhammānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānabhāvanā’’ti.
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #6 : 17 Октябрь 2008 11:06 »

Tse-fu Kuan
Saññā and Sati

http://www.tt034.org.tw/Download/pdf/32_03.pdf

Книга того же автора:

Mindfulness in Early Buddhism: New Approaches through Psychology and Textual Analysis of Pali, Chinese and Sanskrit Sources

http://books.google.com/books?id=ZEk2rpCxGLMC&printsec=frontcover
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #7 : 01 Март 2009 08:18 »

Досточтимый Тханиссаро Бхиккху написал очерк на эту тему:

Mindfulness Defined
by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/mindfulnessdefined.html
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #8 : 25 Май 2009 19:30 »

Tse-fu Kuan

Mindfulness in Early Buddhism: New Approaches through Psychology and Textual Analysis of Pali, Chinese and Sanskrit Sources

http://books.google.com/books?id=ZEk2rpCxGLMC&printsec=frontcover

нашел в инете:
http://dharmadana.wordpress.com/2009/03/23/introduction/
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #9 : 01 Июнь 2009 09:16 »

Слово "сатипаттхана" разбирает Руперт Гетин в своей новой книге:

http://books.google.com/books?id=Xt1KpWm2HzAC&printsec=frontcover&cad=0#PPA141,M1

Звуковое введение к этой книге:

http://podularity.com/oxford-worlds-classics-audio-guides/the-sayings-of-the-buddha/
« Последнее редактирование: 01 Июнь 2009 09:41 от Ассаджи »
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #10 : 08 Май 2010 11:37 »

В контексте буддийской практики термини пробретает более точное значение. В Дхаммасангани 16 приводится такой список близких по смыслу слов:  

Katamaa tasmi.m samaye sati hoti? Yaa tasmi.m samaye sati anussati pa.tissati sati sara.nataa dhaara.nataa apilaapanataa asammussanataa sati satindriya.m satibala.m sammaasati– aya.m tasmi.m samaye sati hoti.

Здесь "сати" объясняется как:

anussati - памятование;
sara.nataa - вспоминание;
dhaara.nataa - удерживание (в уме);

Кстати, здесь прослеживается параллель "сати" с термином "дхарана" из йоги.

В этом аспекте практика памятования описывается, например, в Маханама сутте:

"There is the case where you recollect the Tathagata: 'Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed.' At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting the Tathagata, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on the Tathagata. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated."

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an11/an11.013.than.html

Цитировать
apilaapanataa - перечисление (инвентаризация) в уме;

А здесь прослеживается параллель с "отметкой", "называнием", как оно практикуется в методике досточтимого Махаси Саядо.
« Последнее редактирование: 08 Май 2010 12:21 от Ассаджи »
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #11 : 14 Февраль 2011 22:06 »

По комментарию, "kāyagatāsati" - это весь спектр практик, напрямую связанных с телом - памятование о дыхании, о четырех позах, тридцати двух частях тела, различение четырех элементов, десять созерцаний отсутствия привлекательности, девять кладбищенских созерцаний, и четыре телесных джханы.

kāyagatāsatīti ānāpānaṃ catuiriyāpatho satisampajaññaṃ dvattiṃsākāro catudhātuvavatthānaṃ dasa asubhā nava sivathikā cuṇṇikamanasikāro kesādīsu cattāri rūpajjhānānīti ettha uppannasatiyā etaṃ adhivacanaṃ.

Дигха-никая-аттхакатха 3.1056

Bhāvetabbaniddese kāyagatāsatīti kāyagatāsatisuttante (ma. ni. 3.153 ādayo) vuttā ānāpānacatuiriyāpathakhuddakairiyāpathadvattiṃsākāracatudhātunavasivathikāpaṭikūla- vavatthāpakamanasikārasampayuttā yathānurūpaṃ rūpajjhānasampayuttā ca sati. Sā hi tesu kāyesu gatā pavattāti kāyagatāti vuccati.

Кхуддака-никая-аттхакатха 1.124
Записан

Yuriy

  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 93
Re:Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #12 : 03 Апрель 2011 13:03 »

А как быть с английским? В последние десятилетия на Западе сильно
развивались техники  "mindfulness"

Трудно сказать, развитие это или профанация. Методологическая система вырождается в "техники". Это напоминает использование универсального станка в качестве наковальни.

"Mindfulness is a technique"

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mindfulness

Видимо, здесь отражается западная технократическая ментальность. Искусство жизни сводится к умению читать пошаговые инструкции по пользованию приборами.

То ли развивая, то ли профанируя "mindfulness" западные технократы в том числе помогают раковым больным в онкологических центрах (в теме о научных исследованиях я давал ссылку на руководство по технике внимательности для онкобольных, написанное канадскими онкологами). По ходу они уточняют свое  понимание буддийского термина "mindfulness", например:

A Correspondence between B. Alan Wallace and the Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi


В августе ожидается международный конгресс “Mindfulness – A Buddhist Practice for Today’s Society”, его откроет B.A.Wallace: “What the Buddha meant by mindfulness”. В части касающеся медицины, среди прочих сообщение "Prof. Gustav Dobos: The Impact of Mindfulness on Health and Well-being of Cancer Patients".

По-моему, результаты этой деятельности заслуживают не только внимания, но и применения.
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #13 : 16 Ноябрь 2011 16:07 »

Два созвучных отрывка о роли "сати":

Just as the royal frontier fortress has a gate-keeper — wise, experienced, intelligent — to keep out those he doesn't know and to let in those he does, for the protection of those within and to ward off those without; in the same way a disciple of the noble ones is endowed with remembrance (sati), highly meticulous, remembering & able to call to mind even things that were done & said long ago. With remembrance (sati) as his gate-keeper, the disciple of the ones abandons what is unskillful, develops what is skillful, abandons what is blameworthy, develops what is blameless, and looks after himself with purity. With this sixth true quality is he endowed.

(6) Seyyathāpi bhikkhave, rañño paccantime nagare dovāriko hoti paṇḍito viyatto medhāvī aññātānaṃ nivaretā ñātānaṃ pavesetā abbhantarānaṃ guttiyā bāhirānaṃ paṭighātāya, evameva kho bhikkhave, ariyasāvako satimā hoti paramena satinepakkena samannāgato cirakatampi cirabhāsitampi saritā anussaritā. Sati dovāriko bhikkhave, ariyasāvako akusalaṃ pajahati, kusalaṃbhāveti, sāvajjaṃ pajahati, anavajjaṃ bhāveti, suddhaṃ attānaṃ pariharati. Iminā chaṭṭhena saddhammena samannāgato hoti.

— Нагара сутта: Крепость
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an07/an07.063.than.html

So micchādiṭṭhiyā pahānāya vāyamati sammādiṭṭhiyā upasampadāya. Svāssa hoti sammāvāyāmo. So sato micchādiṭṭhiṃ pajahati. Sato sammādiṭṭhiṃ upasampajja viharati. Sāssa hoti sammāsati. Itissime tayo dhammā sammādiṭṭhiṃ anuparidhāvanti anuparivattanti. Seyyathīdaṃ: sammādiṭṭhi sammāvāyāmo sammāsati.

"One tries to abandon wrong view & to enter into right view: This is one's right effort. One is endowed with remembrance (sato) to abandon wrong view & to enter & remain in right view: This is one's right remembrance (sati). Thus these three qualities — right view, right effort, & right remembrance (sati) — run & circle around right view."

Маха-чаттарисака сутта
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.117.than.html
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #15 : 26 Декабрь 2011 17:25 »

Из Висуддхимагги:

141. (x) By its means they remember (saranti), or it itself remembers, or it is just mere remembering (saraṇa), thus it is minfulness (sati). It has the characteristic of not wobbling. Its function is not to forget. It is manifested as guarding, or it is manifested as the state of confronting an objective field. Its proximate cause is strong preception (thirasaññā), or its proximate cause is the foundations of mindfulness concerned with the body, and so on (see M. Sutta 10). It should be regarded, however, as like a pillar because is firmly founded, or as like a door-keeper because it guards the eye-door, and so on.

465. Saranti tāya, sayaṃ vā sarati saraṇamattameva vā esāti sati. Sā apilāpanalakkhaṇā, asammosarasā, ārakkhapaccupaṭṭhānā, visayābhimukhabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānā vā, thirasaññāpadaṭṭhānā, kāyādisatipaṭṭhānapadaṭṭhānā vā. Ārammaṇe daḷhapatiṭṭhitattā pana esikā viya, cakkhudvārādirakkhaṇato dovāriko viya ca daṭṭhabbā.
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #16 : 26 Декабрь 2011 17:32 »

Из Вибханги:

“Satimā” ti. Tattha, katamā sati?
“Mindful”. Herein, what is mindfulness?

Yā sati anussati paṭissati sati saraṇatā,
That which is mindfulness, recollection, recall, mindfulness, remembrance,

dhāraṇatā apilāpanatā asammussanatā,
bearing (in mind), not losing, not confusing,

sati Satindriyaṁ Satibalaṁ Sammāsati – ayaṁ vuccati “sati”.
mindfulness, the Faculty of Mindfulness, the Strength of Mindfulness, Right Mindfulness – this is called “mindfulness”.

Imāya satiyā upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato,
With this mindfulness he is endowed, truly endowed, having attained, truly attained,

upapanno samupapanno samannāgato.
being possessed, truly possessed, furnished (with it).

Tena vuccati “satimā” ti.
Because of this “mindful” is said.

http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Texts-and-Translations/Satipatthanavibhanga/02-Kayanupassananiddeso.htm
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #17 : 26 Декабрь 2011 17:50 »

The Sankrit root smṛ and the term smṛti predate Buddhism. In the ancient Ṛgveda, smṛ means "to remember" or "to keep in mind." Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary includes the following for each:

    smṛ

    to remember, recollect, bear in mind, call to mind, think of, be mindful of
    to remember or think of with sorrow or regret
    to hand down memoriter, teach, declare
    to recite, to be remembered or recorded or declared (as a law) or mentioned in the smṛti
    to be declared or regarded as, to cause to remember or be mindful of or regret
    to remind any one of, to wish to remember


    smṛti

    f. remembrance, reminiscence, thinking of or upon (loc. or comp.), calling to mind (smṛtim api te na yānti, " they are not even thought of "), memory
    memory as one of the vyabhicāri-bhāvas (q.v.)
    Memory (personified either as the daughter of dakṣa and wife of aṅgiras or as the daughter of dharma and medhā)
    the whole body of sacred tradition or what is remembered by human teachers (in contradistinction to śruti or what is directly heard or revealed to the ṛṣis)


These ancient meanings of "remembrance" and "keeping in mind" were retained in the Buddhist canonical discourses as well as the Theravāda and Sarvāstivāda commentarial traditions. For example, the faculty of sati (satindriya) is defined in SN 48.9 Paṭhamavibhaṅga Sutta as follows:

    Katamañca, bhikkhave, satindriyaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako satimā hoti paramena satinepakkena samannāgato cirakatampi cirabhāsitampi saritā anussaritā – idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, satindriyaṃ.

    And what, monks, is the faculty of sati? Here, monks, a noble disciple is satimā, possessing supreme sati and discretion, one who remembers and recollects what was done and said long ago. This is called the faculty of sati.


Likewise, in SN 46.3 Sīlasutta we find the following passage relating to the awakening factor of sati (satisambojjhaṅga):

    Yasmiṃ samaye, bhikkhave, bhikkhu tathā vūpakaṭṭho viharanto taṃ dhammaṃ anussarati anuvitakketi, satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti; satisambojjhaṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti; satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati.

    Dwelling thus withdrawn, one recollects the dhamma and thinks it over. Whenever, monks, a monk dwelling thus withdrawn recollects that dhamma and thinks it over, on that occasion the awakening factor of sati is aroused by the monk, on that occasion the monk develops the awakening factor of sati, on that occasion the awakening factor of sati comes to fulfillment through development in the monk.


And SN 45.8 Vibhaṅga Sutta we find the description of right sati (sammāsati):

    Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāsati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ; dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ – ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsati.

    And what, monks, is right sati? Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, fully aware, satimā, having removed covetousness and displeasure with regard to the world. He dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, fully aware, satimā, having removed covetousness and displeasure with regard to the world. He dwells contemplating mind in mind, ardent, fully aware, satimā, having removed covetousness and displeasure with regard to the world. He dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena, ardent, fully aware, satimā, having removed covetousness and displeasure with regard to the world.


It's worth noticing that this description of right sati is qualified by being ardent (ātāpī), fully aware (sampajāna), and satimā. To clarify the meanings of these terms we can turn to the Satipaṭṭhānavibhaṅga of the Pāli Abhidhammapiṭaka, which gives the following word analysis for each:

    “Ātāpī” ti. Tattha, katamaṁ ātappaṁ? Yo cetasiko viriyārambho nikkamo parakkamo, uyyāmo vāyāmo ussāho ussoḷhī thāmo dhiti asithilaparakkamatā, anikkhittachandatā anikkhittadhuratā dhurasampaggāho, viriyaṁ Viriyindriyaṁ Viriyabalaṁ Sammāvāyāmo – ayaṁ vuccati “ātappaṁ”. Iminā ātappena upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato, upapanno samupapanno samannāgato. Tena vuccati “ātāpī” ti.

    “Sampajāno” ti. Tattha, katamaṁ sampajaññaṁ? Yā paññā pajānanā vicayo pavicayo dhammavicayo, sallakkhaṇā upalakkhaṇā paccupalakkhaṇā, paṇḍiccaṁ kosallaṁ nepuññaṁ vebhabyā cintā upaparikkhā, bhūrī medhā pariṇāyikā vipassanā sampajaññaṁ patodo, paññā Paññindriyaṁ Paññābalaṁ paññāsatthaṁ, paññāpāsādo paññā-āloko paññā-obhāso paññāpajjoto paññāratanaṁ, amoho dhammavicayo Sammādiṭṭhi – idaṁ vuccati “sampajaññaṁ”. Iminā sampajaññena upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato, upapanno samupapanno samannāgato. Tena vuccati “sampajāno” ti.

    “Satimā” ti. Tattha, katamā sati? Yā sati anussati paṭissati sati saraṇatā, dhāraṇatā apilāpanatā asammussanatā, sati Satindriyaṁ Satibalaṁ Sammāsati – ayaṁ vuccati “sati”. Imāya satiyā upeto hoti samupeto upāgato samupāgato, upapanno samupapanno samannāgato. Tena vuccati “satimā” ti.

    “Ardent”. Herein, what is ardour? Whatever mental exercise of effort, exertion, great exertion, enterprise, endeavour, attempt, travail, vigour, courage, exertion that is not lax, not putting aside of (wholesome) desire, not putting aside of responsibility, being taken up with responsibility, effort, the faculty of effort, the strength of effort, right endeavour – this is called “ardour”. With this ardour he is endowed, truly endowed, having attained, truly attained, being possessed, truly possessed, furnished (with it). Because of this “ardent” is said.

    “Full awareness”. Herein, what is full awareness? That which is wisdom, knowing, investigation, deep investigation, investigation of (the nature of) things, discernment, discrimination, differentiation, erudition, skilfulness, subtlety, clarification, thoughtfulness, consideration, breadth, intelligence, guidance, insight, full awareness, examination, wisdom, the faculty of wisdom, the strength of wisdom, the sword of wisdom, height of wisdom, light of wisdom, lustre of wisdom, flame of wisdom, treasure of wisdom, non-delusion, investigation of (the nature of) things, right view – this is called “full awareness”. With this full awareness he is endowed, truly endowed, having attained, truly attained, being possessed, truly possessed, furnished (with it). Because of this “full awareness” is said.

    “Satimāti”. Herein, what is sati? That which is sati, recollection, recall, sati, remembrance, bearing (in mind), not losing, not confusing, sati, the faculty of sati, the strength of sati, right sati – this is called “sati”. With this sati he is endowed, truly endowed, having attained, truly attained, being possessed, truly possessed, furnished (with it). Because of this “satimā” is said.


And so it's clear that the meaning of sati as "remembrance" and "keeping in mind" was still very much retained in the Vibhaṅga (and in parallel passages in the Dhammasaṅgaṇī).

Likewise, the early meanings of remembrance and keeping in mind are retained in the Milindapañha, which gives the characteristics of sati as "calling to mind" or "noting" (apilāpana) and "taking hold" or "keeping in mind" (upaggaṇhana). These two characteristics are further explained as follows:

    “Sati, mahārāja, uppajjamānā kusalākusalasāvajjānavajjahīnappaṇītakaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgadhamme apilāpeti ‘ime cattāro satipaṭṭhānā, ime cattāro sammappadhānā, ime cattāro iddhipādā, imāni pañcindriyāni, imāni pañca balāni, ime satta bojjhaṅgā, ayaṃ ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, ayaṃ samatho, ayaṃ vipassanā, ayaṃ vijjā, ayaṃ vimuttī’ti. Tato yogāvacaro sevitabbe dhamme sevati, asevitabbe dhamme na sevati. Bhajitabbe dhamme bhajati abhajittabbe dhamme na bhajati. Evaṃ kho, mahārāja, apilāpanalakkhaṇā satī”ti...

    “Sati, mahārāja, uppajjamānā hitāhitānaṃ dhammānaṃ gatiyo samanveti ‘ime dhammā hitā, ime dhammā ahitā. Ime dhammā upakārā, ime dhammā anupakārā’ti. Tato yogāvacaro ahite dhamme apanudeti, hite dhamme upaggaṇhāti. Anupakāre dhamme apanudeti, upakāre dhamme upaggaṇhāti. Evaṃ kho, mahārāja, upaggaṇhanalakkhaṇā satī”ti.

    “As sati springs up in the mind of the recluse, he repeatedly notes the wholesome and unwholesome, blameless and blameworthy, insignificant and important, dark and light qualities and those that resemble them thinking, ‘These are the four foundations of mindfulness, these the four right efforts, these the four bases of success, these the five controlling faculties, these the five moral powers, these the seven factors of enlightenment, these are the eight factors of the noble path, this is serenity, this insight, this vision and this freedom.’ Thus does he cultivate those qualities that are desirable and shun those that should be avoided.”...

    “As sati springs up in the mind, he searches out the categories of good qualities and their opposites thinking, ‘Such and such qualities are beneficial and such are harmful’. Thus does he make what is unwholesome in himself disappear and maintain what is good.”

http://www.dhammawheel.com/viewtopic.php?f=23&t=10600#p161422
« Последнее редактирование: 26 Декабрь 2011 18:10 от Ассаджи »
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #18 : 26 Декабрь 2011 17:52 »

Just as the royal frontier fortress has a gate-keeper — wise, experienced, intelligent — to keep out those he doesn't know and to let in those he does, for the protection of those within and to ward off those without; in the same way a disciple of the noble ones is endowed with remembrance (sati), highly meticulous, remembering & able to call to mind even things that were done & said long ago. With remembrance (sati) as his gate-keeper, the disciple of the ones abandons what is unskillful, develops what is skillful, abandons what is blameworthy, develops what is blameless, and looks after himself with purity. With this sixth true quality is he endowed.

(6) Seyyathāpi bhikkhave, rañño paccantime nagare dovāriko hoti paṇḍito viyatto medhāvī aññātānaṃ nivaretā ñātānaṃ pavesetā abbhantarānaṃ guttiyā bāhirānaṃ paṭighātāya, evameva kho bhikkhave, ariyasāvako satimā hoti paramena satinepakkena samannāgato cirakatampi cirabhāsitampi saritā anussaritā. Sati dovāriko bhikkhave, ariyasāvako akusalaṃ pajahati, kusalaṃbhāveti, sāvajjaṃ pajahati, anavajjaṃ bhāveti, suddhaṃ attānaṃ pariharati. Iminā chaṭṭhena saddhammena samannāgato hoti.

— Nagara Sutta: The Fortress (AN 7.63)

So micchādiṭṭhiyā pahānāya vāyamati sammādiṭṭhiyā upasampadāya. Svāssa hoti sammāvāyāmo. So sato micchādiṭṭhiṃ pajahati. Sato sammādiṭṭhiṃ upasampajja viharati. Sāssa hoti sammāsati. Itissime tayo dhammā sammādiṭṭhiṃ anuparidhāvanti anuparivattanti. Seyyathīdaṃ: sammādiṭṭhi sammāvāyāmo sammāsati.

"One tries to abandon wrong view & to enter into right view: This is one's right effort. One is endowed with remembrance (sato) to abandon wrong view & to enter & remain in right view: This is one's right remembrance (sati). Thus these three qualities — right view, right effort, & right remembrance (sati) — run & circle around right view."

Maha-cattarisaka sutta
Записан

Ассаджи

  • Администратор
  • Участник
  • Оффлайн Оффлайн
  • Сообщений: 6311
    • Практики развития осознанности
Re: Перевод "sati"
« Ответ #19 : 27 Декабрь 2011 08:12 »

"Or his mindfulness that 'There is a body' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance.

Or his mindfulness that 'There are feelings' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance.

Or his mindfulness that 'There is a mind' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance.

Or his mindfulness that 'There are mental qualities' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance."

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.22.0.than.html

"Just as in the last month of the hot season, when all the crops have been gathered into the village, a cowherd would look after his cows: While resting under the shade of a tree or out in the open, he simply keeps himself mindful of 'those cows.' In the same way, I simply kept myself mindful of 'those mental qualities.'

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.019.than.html
Записан
Страницы: [1] 2 3 4  Все