Выделил дискуссию по значению термина "āsava" в отдельну тему.
Вот что пишет досточтимый Ньянананда в Nibbana Sermons - Part 5 :
Yet another important term that should receive attention in any discussion on Nibbaana is aasava. This is because the arahant is often called a khaa.naasava, one whose aasavas are extinct. Aasavakkhayo, extinction of aasavas, is an epithet of Nibbaana. So the distinct feature of an arahant is his extinction of aasavas.
Now, what does aasava mean? In ordinary life, this word is used to denote fermentation or liquor that has got fermented for a long time. If there is even a dreg of ferment in a vessel, it is enough to cause fermentation for any suitable raw material put into it. So also are the aasavas. They are like the residual dregs of the ebullient mass of defilements in beings, which have undergone fermentation for a long, long time in sa.msaara.
Very often, aasavas are said to be of three kinds, as kaamaasavaa, bhavaasavaa, and avijjaasavaa. The term aasava in this context is usually rendered as `influxes'. We may understand them as certain intoxicating influences, which create a world of sense-desires, a stupor that gives a notion of existence and leads to ignorance. These influxes are often said to have the nature of infiltrating into the mind. Sometimes a fourth type of influxes, di.t.thaasavaa, is also mentioned. But this can conveniently be subsumed under avijjaasavaa.
The extinction of influxes becomes a distinctive characteristic of an arahant, as it ensures complete freedom. One could be said to have attained complete freedom only if one's mind is free from these influxes. It is because these influxes are capable of creating intoxication again and again.
The immense importance of the extinction of influxes, and how it accounts for the worthiness of an arahant, is sometimes clearly brought out. The ultimate aim of the Buddha's teaching is one that in other systems of thought is generally regarded as attainable only after death. The Buddha, on the other hand, showed a way to its realization here and now.
As a matter of fact, even brahmins like Pokkharasaati went about saying that it is impossible for a human being to attain something supramundane: Katham'hi naama manussabhuuto uttarimanussadhammaa alamariya~naa.nadassanavisesa.m ~nassati vaa dakkhati vaa sacchi vaa karissati? "How can one as a human being know or see or realize a supramundane state, an extraordinary knowledge and vision befitting the noble ones?" They thought that such a realization is possible only after death. Immortality, in other systems of thought, is always an after death experience.
Now the realization of the extinction of influxes, on the other hand, gives a certain assurance about the future. It is by this extinction of influxes that one wins to the certitude that there is no more birth after this. Khii.naa jaati, extinct is birth! Certitude about something comes only with realization. In fact, the term sacchikiriya implies a seeing with one's own eyes, as the word for eye, aksi, is implicit in it.
However, everything cannot be verified by seeing with one's own eyes. The Buddha has pointed out that there are four ways of realization or verification:
Cattaaro me, bhikkhave, sacchikara.niiyaa dhammaa. Katame cattaro?Atthi, bhikkhave, dhammaa kaayena sacchikara.niiyaa; atthi, bhikkhave, dhammaa satiyaa sacchikara.niiyaa; atthi, bhikkhave, dhammaa cakkhunaa sacchikara.niiyaa; atthi, bhikkhave, dhammaa pa~n~naaya sacchikara.niiyaa.
"Monks, there are these four realizable things. What four? There are things, monks, that are realizable through the body; there are things, monks, that are realizable through memory; there are things, monks, that are realizable through the eye; there are things, monks, that are realizable through wisdom."
By way of explanation, the Buddha says that the things realizable through the body are the eight deliverances, the things realizable through memory are one's former habitations, the things realizable through the eye are the death and rebirth of beings, and what is realizable through wisdom, is the extinction of influxes.
One's former lives cannot be seen with one's own eyes by running into the past. It is possible only by purifying one's memory and directing it backwards. Similarly, the death and rebirth of beings can be seen, as if with one's fleshly eye, by the divine eye, by those who have developed it. So also the fact of extirpating all influxes is to be realized by wisdom, and not by any other means. The fact that the influxes of sensuality, existence, ignorance, and views, will not flow in again, can be verified only by wisdom. That is why special mention is made of Nibbaana as something realizable.
Because Nibbaana is said to be something realizable, some are of the opinion that nothing should be predicated about it. What is the reason for this special emphasis on its realizability? It is to bring into sharp relief the point of divergence, since the Buddha taught a way of realizing here and now something that in other religions was considered impossible.
What was it that they regarded impossible to be realized? The cessation of existence, or bhavanirodha. How can one be certain here and now that this existence has ceased? This might sometimes appear as a big puzzle. But all the same, the arahant experiences the cessation of existence as a realization. That is why he even gives expression to it as: Bhavanirodho Nibbaana.m, "cessation of existence is Nibbaana".
It comes about by this extinction of influxes. The very existence of `existence' is especially due to the flowing in of influxes of existence. What is called `existence' is not the apparent process of existing visible to others. It is something that pertains to one's own mental continuum.
For instance, when it is said that some person is in the world of sense desires, one might sometimes imagine it as living surrounded by objects of sense pleasure. But that is not always the case. It is the existence in a world of sense desires, built up by sensuous thoughts. It is the same with the realms of form and formless realms. Even those realms can be experienced and attained while living in this world itself.
Similarly, it is possible for one to realize the complete cessation of this existence while living in this very world. It is accomplished by winning to the realization that the influxes of sense desires, existence, and ignorance, no longer influence one's mind.